Quiz 10: Infection
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1. What is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide?
a. Starvation c. Cardiovascular disease
b. Traumatic injury d. Infectious disease
2. What is the first stage in the infectious process?
a. Invasion c. Spread
b. Colonization d. Multiplication
3. Which type of microorganism reproduces on the skin?
a. Viruses c. Protozoa and Rickettsiae
b. Bacteria and fungi d. Mycoplasma
4. Phagocytosis involves neutrophils actively attacking, engulfing, and destroying which microorganisms?
a. Bacteria c. Viruses
b. Fungi d. Yeasts
5. Once they have penetrated the first line of defense, which microorganisms do natural killer (NK) cells actively attack?
a. Bacteria c. Viruses
b. Fungi d. Mycoplasma
6. Which statement concerning exotoxins is true?
a. Exotoxins are contained in cell walls of gram-negative bacteria.
b. Exotoxins are released during the lysis of bacteria.
c. Exotoxins are able to initiate the complement and coagulation cascades.
d. Exotoxins are released during bacterial growth.
7. Which statement is true concerning a fungal infection?
a. Fungal infections occur only on skin, hair, and nails.
b. Phagocytes and T lymphocytes control fungal infections.
c. Fungal infections release endotoxins.
d. Vaccines prevent fungal infections.
8. Cytokines are thought to cause fevers by stimulating the synthesis of which chemical mediator?
a. Leukotriene c. Prostaglandin
b. Histamine d. Bradykinin
9. Considering the hypothalamus, a fever is produced by:
a. Endogenous pyrogens acting directly on the hypothalamus.
b. Exogenous pyrogens acting directly on the hypothalamus.
c. Immune complexes acting indirectly on the hypothalamus.
d. Cytokines acting indirectly on the hypothalamus.
10. Which statement about vaccines is true?
a. Most bacterial vaccines contain attenuated organisms.
b. Most viral vaccines are made by using dead organisms.
c. Vaccines require booster injections to maintain life-long protection.
d. Vaccines provide effective protection against most infections.
11. Vaccines against viruses are created from:
a. Killed organisms or extracts of antigens
b. Live organisms weakened to produce antigens
c. Purified toxins that have been chemically detoxified
d. Recombinant pathogenic protein
12. Which statement is a characteristic of HIV?
a. HIV only infects T-helper (Th) cells.
b. HIV is a retrovirus.
c. HIV carries genetic information in its DNA.
d. HIV has five identified strains.
13. What is the role of reverse transcriptase in HIV infection?
a. Reverse transcriptase converts single-stranded DNA into double-stranded DNA.
b. It is needed to produce integrase.
c. It transports the RNA into the cell nucleus.
d. It converts RNA into double-stranded DNA.
14. After sexual transmission of HIV, a person can be infected yet seronegative for how many months?
a. 1 to 2 c. 18 to 20
b. 6 to 14 d. 24 to 36
15. Which cells are primary targets for HIV?
a. CD4+ Th cells only
b. CD4+ Th cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells
c. CD8-positive cytotoxic T (Tc) cells and plasma cells
d. CD8-positive Tc cells only
16. What area in the body may act as a reservoir in which HIV can be relatively protected from antiviral drugs?
a. Central nervous system c. Thymus gland
b. Bone marrow d. Lungs
17. AIDS produces a striking decrease in the number of which cells?
a. Macrophages c. CD4+ Th cells
b. CD8+ T cells d. Memory T cells
18. HIV antibodies appear within how many weeks after infection through blood products?
a. 1 to 2 c. 10 to 12
b. 4 to 7 d. 20 to 24
19. What is the final stage of the infectious process?
a. Colonization c. Multiplication
b. Invasion d. Spread
20. Toxigenicity is defined as the:
a. Ability of the pathogen to invade and multiply in the host
b. Pathogen’s ability to produce disease by the production of a soluble toxin
c. Ability of an agent to produce disease
d. Potency of a pathogen measured in terms of the number of microorganisms required to kill the host
21. The ability of the pathogen to invade and multiply in the host is referred to as:
a. Infectivity c. Pathogenicity
b. Toxigenicity d. Virulence
22. Some bacterial surface proteins bind with the crystalline fragment (Fc) portion of an antibody to:
a. Hide in cells to avoid triggering an immune response
b. Form self-protecting toxins
c. Make staining possible for microscopic observation
d. Produce a protective “self” protein
23. Which organism is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection?
a. Staphylococcus aureus c. Helicobacter pylori
b. Clostridium perfringens d. Treponema pallidum
24. Which disease is an example of a rickettsial infection?
a. Cholera c. Sleeping sickness
b. Candida d. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
25. Which secretion transmits HIV? (Select all that apply.)
d. Breast milk
26. Which infection is fungal? (Select all that apply.)
d. Athlete’s foot
27. Which statement is true regarding the development of HIV symptoms? (Select all that apply.)
a. Symptoms generally appear in the clinical latency stage.
b. Symptoms are generally observable within 5 years of the initial infection.
c. T cells levels, particularly those of memory T cells, progressively decrease.
d. Untreated infected individuals may remain asymptomatic for up to10 years.
e. Secondary lymphoid organs experience damage and resulting malfunction.
28. Which statements are true regarding endotoxins? (Select all that apply.)
a. Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides.
b. Endotoxins are located in the walls of bacteria.
c. Endotoxins are created during the process of lysis.
d. Endotoxins are found in gram-negative microorganisms.
e. Endotoxins are released during the destruction of its host.
29. Which statements are true regarding viruses? (Select all that apply.)
a. Viruses are very complex microorganisms.
b. Viruses are referred to as eukaryotes.
c. Viruses are capable of producing messenger RNA (mRNA).
d. Viruses penetrate plasma membranes via endocytosis.
e. Viruses are capable of uncoating cytoplasmic nucleocapsid.
30. Which of the following play a role in the control of fungal infections? (Select all that apply.)
c. Natural killer cells
e. T lymphocytes
31. Complications of AIDS include: (Select all that apply.)
a. Kaposi sarcoma
b. Helicobacter pylori
c. Cytomegalovirus retinitis
d. Herpes simplex infection
e. Legionella pneumophila
Match each term with its definition.
______ A. Toxigenicity
______ B. Infectivity
______ C. Pathogenicity
______ D. Virulence
32. Ability of the pathogen to invade and multiply in the host
33. Capacity of a pathogen to cause severe disease
34. An important factor in determining a pathogen’s ability to produce disease by the production of a soluble toxin
35. Ability of an agent to produce disease