Quiz 100: Epigenetics and Disease
McCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th Edition
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1. What genetic process is likely responsible for the occurrence of asthma in only one of a pair of identical twins?
a. Epigenetic modifications
b. Genomic imprinting
c. Transgenerational inheritance
2. Prader-Willi syndrome causes a chromosomal defect that is what?
a. Initiated by postnatal exposure to a virus
b. Inherited from the father
c. Related to maternal alcohol abuse
d. Transferred from mother to child
3. What can a malfunction in DNA methylation lead to?
d. Diabetes mellitus
4. Which statement is true regarding the embryonic development of stem cells?
a. They are already differentiated.
b. They are referred to as housekeeping genes.
c. They already demonstrate DNA sequencing.
d. They are said to be totipotent.
5. When microRNA (miRNA) are methylated their messenger RNA (mRNA) targets are over-expressed. What would be the resulting effect on existing cancer?
a. Cell death
6. What is the difference between DNA sequence mutations and epigenetic modifications?
a. DNA sequence mutations can be directly altered.
b. Leukemia is a result of only DNA sequence mutation.
c. Epigenetic modifications potentially can be reversed.
d. No known drug therapies are available for epigenetic modifications.
7. Which term refers to the silenced gene of a gene pair?
8. What is most likely the shape of the face of a child diagnosed with Russell-Silver syndrome?
9. What are genes responsible for the maintenance of all cells referred to as?
10. What is the belief regarding twins who adopt dramatically different lifestyles?
a. They may experience very different aging processes.
b. They will retain very similar methylation patterns.
c. They will experience identical phenotypes throughout their lifespans.
d. They may never demonstrate similar DNA sequences of their somatic cells.
11. What do hypomethylation and the resulting effect on oncogenes result in?
a. A decrease in the activity of the oncogene, thus suppressing cancer development.
b. A deactivation of MLH1 to halt DNA repair.
c. An increase in tumor progression from benign to malignant.
d. An over-expression of microRNA, resulting in tumorigenesis.
12. When a chromosome lacking 4 million base pairs is inherited from the mother, the child is at risk for developing which syndrome?
1. A child’s diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is supported by the presence of what? (Select all that apply.)
a. An omphalocele
b. Neonatal hypoglycemia
c. Creased earlobes
d. Low birth weight
e. A large tongue
2. A diagnosis of Angelman syndrome in a child is supported by which assessment findings? (Select all that apply.)
a. Small feet and hands
b. Profound intellectual disability
d. Ataxic gait
e. History of seizures