Quiz 104: Infection
McCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th Edition
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1. What is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide?
b. Traumatic injury
c. Cardiovascular disease
d. Infectious disease
2. What is the first stage in the infectious process?
3. Which type of microorganism reproduces on the skin?
b. Bacteria and fungi
c. Protozoa and Rickettsiae
4. Phagocytosis involves neutrophils actively attacking, engulfing, and destroying which microorganisms?
5. Once they have penetrated the first line of defense, which microorganisms do natural killer (NK) cells actively attack?
6. A student asks the healthcare professional to describe exotoxins. Which statement by the professional is best?
a. Exotoxins are contained in cell walls of gram-negative bacteria.
b. Exotoxins are released during the lysis of bacteria.
c. Exotoxins are able to initiate the complement and coagulation cascades.
d. Exotoxins are released during bacterial growth.
7. A healthcare professional student is learning about fungal infections. What information should the student use to help another student understand?
a. Fungal infections occur only on skin, hair, and nails.
b. Phagocytes and T lymphocytes control fungal infections.
c. Fungal infections release endotoxins.
d. Vaccines prevent fungal infections.
8. Cytokines are thought to cause fevers by stimulating the synthesis of which chemical mediator?
9. Considering the hypothalamus, what is a fever produced by?
a. Endogenous pyrogens acting directly on the hypothalamus
b. Exogenous pyrogens acting directly on the hypothalamus
c. Immune complexes acting indirectly on the hypothalamus
d. Cytokines acting indirectly on the hypothalamus
10. A healthcare professional is conducting community education on vaccinations. Which statement about vaccines does the professional include in the presentation?
a. Most bacterial vaccines contain attenuated organisms.
b. Most viral vaccines are made by using dead organisms.
c. Vaccines require booster injections to maintain life-long protection.
d. Vaccines provide effective protection against most infections.
11. What are vaccines against viruses created from?
a. Killed organisms or extracts of antigens
b. Live organisms weakened to produce antigens
c. Purified toxins that have been chemically detoxified
d. Recombinant pathogenic protein
12. What does the student learn about HIV?
a. HIV only infects T-helper (Th) cells.
b. HIV is a retrovirus.
c. HIV carries genetic information in its DNA.
d. HIV has five identified strains.
13. What is the role of reverse transcriptase in HIV infection?
a. Reverse transcriptase converts single-stranded DNA into double-stranded DNA.
b. It is needed to produce integrase.
c. It transports the RNA into the cell nucleus.
d. It converts RNA into double-stranded DNA.
14. After sexual transmission of HIV, how soon can lab results detect the infection?
a. 1 to 2 days
b. 4 to 10 days
c. 4 to 8 weeks
d. 2 to 4 months
15. Which cells are primary targets for HIV?
a. CD4+ Th cells only
b. CD4+ Th cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells
c. CD8-positive cytotoxic T (Tc) cells and plasma cells
d. CD8-positive Tc cells only
16. What area in the body may act as a reservoir in which HIV can be relatively protected from antiviral drugs?
a. Central nervous system
b. Bone marrow
c. Thymus gland
17. What is the final stage of the infectious process?
18. How is toxigenicity defined?
a. The ability of the pathogen to invade and multiply in the host
b. The pathogen’s ability to produce disease by the production of a soluble toxin
c. The ability of an agent to produce disease
d. The potency of a pathogen measured in terms of the number of microorganisms required to kill the host
19. What is the ability of the pathogen to invade and multiply in the host referred to as?
20. Some bacterial surface proteins bind with the crystalline fragment (Fc) portion of an antibody to do what?
a. Hide in cells to avoid triggering an immune response
b. Form self-protecting toxins
c. Make staining possible for microscopic observation
d. Produce a protective “self” protein
21. Which organism is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection?
a. Staphylococcus aureus
b. Clostridium perfringens
c. Helicobacter pylori
d. Treponema pallidum
22. Which disease is an example of a rickettsial infection?
c. Sleeping sickness
d. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
1. Which secretions transmit HIV? (Select all that apply.)
d. Breast milk
2. Which infections are fungal? (Select all that apply.)
d. Athlete’s foot
3. Which statements are true regarding the development of HIV symptoms? (Select all that apply.)
a. Symptoms generally appear in the clinical latency stage.
b. Symptoms are generally observable within 5 years of the initial infection.
c. T cells levels, particularly those of memory T cells, progressively decrease.
d. Untreated infected individuals may remain asymptomatic for up to10 years.
e. Secondary lymphoid organs experience damage and resulting malfunction.
4. Which statements are true regarding endotoxins? (Select all that apply.)
a. Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides.
b. Endotoxins are located in the walls of bacteria.
c. Endotoxins are created during the process of lysis.
d. Endotoxins are found in gram-negative microorganisms.
e. Endotoxins are released during the destruction of its host.
5. Which statements are true regarding viruses? (Select all that apply.)
a. Viruses are very complex microorganisms.
b. Viruses are referred to as eukaryotes.
c. Viruses are capable of producing messenger RNA (mRNA).
d. Viruses penetrate plasma membranes via endocytosis.
e. Viruses are capable of uncoating cytoplasmic nucleocapsid.
6. Which of these play a role in the control of fungal infections? (Select all that apply.)
c. Natural killer cells
e. T lymphocytes
7. Which are complications of AIDS? (Select all that apply.)
a. Kaposi sarcoma
b. Helicobacter pylori
c. Cytomegalovirus retinitis
d. Herpes simplex infection
e. Legionella pneumophila