Quiz 109: Structure and Function of the Neurologic System
McCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th Edition
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1. Which pathway carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS)?
2. Which type of axon transmits a nerve impulse at the highest rate?
a. Large nonmyelinated
b. Large myelinated
c. Small nonmyelinated
d. Small myelinated
3. Which nerves are capable of regeneration?
a. Nerves within the brain and spinal cord
b. Peripheral nerves that are cut or severed
c. Myelinated nerves in the peripheral nervous system
d. Unmyelinated nerves of the peripheral nervous system
4. Where is the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, secreted?
a. Somatic nervous system
b. Parasympathetic preganglion
c. Sympathetic postganglion
d. Parasympathetic postganglion
5. Both oligodendroglia and Schwann cells share the ability to do what?
a. Form a myelin sheath
b. Remove cellular debris
c. Transport nutrients
d. Line the ventricles
6. During a synapse, what change occurs after the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor?
a. The permeability of the presynaptic neuron changes; consequently, its membrane potential is changed as well.
b. The permeability of the postsynaptic neuron changes; consequently, its membrane potential is changed as well.
c. The postsynaptic cell prevents any change in permeability and destroys the action potential.
d. The presynaptic cell synthesizes and secretes additional neurotransmitters.
7. What name is given to a large network of neurons within the brainstem that is essential for maintaining wakefulness?
b. Reticular activating system
c. Medulla oblongata
8. Thought and goal-oriented behaviors are functions of which area of the brain?
b. Limbic system
c. Prefrontal lobe
d. Occipital lobe
9. Where is the region responsible for the motor aspects of speech located?
a. Wernicke area in the temporal lobe
b. Broca speech area in the frontal lobe
c. Wronka area in the parietal lobe
d. Barlow area in the occipital lobe
10. Parkinson disease is associated with defects in which area of the brain?
b. Medulla oblongata
d. Substantia nigra
11. Maintenance of a constant internal environment and the implementation of behavioral patterns are main functions of which area of the brain?
12. The ability of the eyes to track moving objects through a visual field is primarily a function of which colliculi?
13. What part of the brain mediates the physical expression of emotions?
b. Basal ganglia
c. Medulla oblongata
14. Reflex activities concerned with heart rate, blood pressure, respirations, sneezing, swallowing, and coughing are controlled by which area of the brain?
d. Medulla oblongata
15. A healthcare professional is assessing a patient who suffered a head trauma. The patient is not able to sense touch of a sharp pin and cannot distinguish a hot object from a cold one. What part of the patient’s brain does the professional suspect is damaged?
c. Medulla oblongata
d. Lateral colliculi
16. A healthcare professional is assessing a patient for dysfunction of cranial nerve VII. What assessment finding would confirm the professional’s suspicion?
a. Patient is unable to open mouth against resistance.
b. Patient does not display intact gag reflex.
c. Patient is able to smile only on one side of the face.
d. Patient’s tongue deviates to the right when sticking out.
17. Which area of the brain assumes the responsibility for involuntary muscle control and for maintaining balance and posture?
18. A patient has a spinal cord injury that included damage to the upper motor neurons. What assessment finding would the healthcare provider associate with this injury?
a. Permanent paralysis below the level of the injury
b. Initial paralysis, but gradual partial recovery later
c. Hemiplegia on the contralateral side of the body
d. Notable increase in the amount of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
19. What is the membrane that separates the brain’s cerebellum from its cerebrum?
a. Tentorium cerebelli
b. Falx cerebri
c. Arachnoid membrane
d. Falx cerebelli
20. A patient has a defect in the arachnoid villi. What finding would the healthcare professional expect to note?
a. Production of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
b. Ischemia in the choroid plexuses
c. Cloudy cerebral spinal fluid on analysis
d. Absorption of too little cerebrospinal fluid
21. Where is the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produced?
a. Arachnoid villi
b. Choroid plexuses
c. Ependymal cells
d. Pia mater
22. Which of the meninges closely adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord and follows the sulci and fissures?
a. Dura mater
c. Pia mater
d. Inner dura
23. Norepinephrine produces what primary response?
a. Increased contractility of the heart
b. Release of renin from the kidney
d. Sleep cycle disturbance
24. A patient is brought to the Emergency Department after being in an explosion. The patient was not seriously injured. Laboratory testing shows an elevated blood glucose (sugar) level, but the patient does not have diabetes. What does the healthcare professional tell the patient about this condition?
a. “You should have a physical by your primary care provider.”
b. “Your blood sugar may be high because of the stress of the situation.”
c. “You actually may have undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.”
d. “You should be tested for underlying neurological problems.”
25. The brain receives approximately what percentage of the cardiac output?
26. What is the collateral blood flow to the brain provided by?
a. Carotid arteries
b. Basilar artery
c. Circle of Willis
d. Vertebral arteries
27. The nurse recognizes that a patient’s diagnosis of a bacterial infection of the brain’s meningeal layer is supported by which diagnostic laboratory result?
a. Chloride 125 mEq/L
b. Leukocytes 110/mm3
c. Protein 32 mg/dL
d. Glucose 63 mg/dL
1. Which cranial nerves contain parasympathetic nerves? (Select all that apply.)
a. I (olfactory)
b. III (oculomotor)
c. VII (facial)
d. IX (glossopharyngeal)
e. X (vagus)
2. The sympathetic nervous system primarily serves to protect an individual by doing which of these? (Select all that apply.)
a. Decreasing mucous production
b. Increasing blood sugar levels
c. Increasing body temperature
d. Decreasing sweat excretion
e. Increasing blood pressure
3. The aging process brings about what changes to human cells? (Select all that apply.)
a. Increased neurofibrillary tangles
b. Imbalance of neurotransmitters
c. Increased neuron production
d. Decreased myelin presence
e. Altered dendrite structure
4. Which statements are true regarding the blood-brain barrier (BBB)? (Select all that apply.)
a. The BBB is dependent on astrocytes.
b. It uses the meningeal layers of the brain.
c. It restricts the flow of large molecules, such as plasma proteins.
d. Naturally occurring inflammatory mediators affect the BBB.
e. Becomes increasingly permeable with aging
5. What evidence does the nurse expect to see when a patient experiences trauma to the hypothalamus? (Select all that apply.)
a. Uneven expression of mood
b. Unstable blood glucose levels
c. Poor regulation of body temperature
d. Visual disturbances such as blurred vision
e. Nausea, vomiting, and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease
6. What is a Schwann cell? (Select all that apply.)
a. Can form the myelin sheath
b. Is also referred to as a neurolemma
c. Affects the function of the nodes of Ranvier
d. Is located in the peripheral nervous system
e. Is responsible of decreasing conduction velocity