Quiz 15: Structure and Function of the Neurologic System

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Quiz 15: Structure and Function of the Neurologic System

Questions 44
Instructor Verified Answers Included
WarofGrades Guaranteed A+ Graded Tutorial

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which pathway carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS)?
a. Ascending c. Somatic
b. Descending d. Efferent

2. Which type of axon transmits a nerve impulse at the highest rate?
a. Large nonmyelinated c. Small nonmyelinated
b. Large myelinated d. Small myelinated

3. Which nerves are capable of regeneration?
a. Nerves within the brain and spinal cord
b. Peripheral nerves that are cut or severed
c. Myelinated nerves in the peripheral nervous system
d. Unmyelinated nerves of the peripheral nervous system

4. The neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, is secreted in the:
a. Somatic nervous system c. Sympathetic postganglion
b. Parasympathetic preganglion d. Parasympathetic postganglion

5. Both oligodendroglia and Schwann cells share the ability to:
a. Form a myelin sheath c. Transport nutrients
b. Remove cellular debris d. Line the ventricles

6. During a synapse, what change occurs after the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor?
a. The permeability of the presynaptic neuron changes; consequently, its membrane potential is changed as well.
b. The permeability of the postsynaptic neuron changes; consequently, its membrane potential is changed as well.
c. The postsynaptic cell prevents any change in permeability and destroys the action potential.
d. The presynaptic cell synthesizes and secretes additional neurotransmitters.

7. What name is given to a large network of neurons within the brainstem that is essential for maintaining wakefulness?
a. Midbrain c. Medulla oblongata
b. Reticular activating system d. Pons

8. Thought and goal-oriented behaviors are functions of which area of the brain?
a. Cerebellum c. Prefrontal lobe
b. Limbic system d. Occipital lobe

9. The region responsible for the motor aspects of speech is located in the:
a. Wernicke area in the temporal lobe c. Wronka area in the parietal lobe
b. Broca area in the frontal lobe d. Barlow area in the occipital lobe

10. Parkinson and Huntington diseases are associated with defects in which area of the brain?
a. Thalamus c. Cerebellum
b. Medulla oblongata d. Basal ganglia

11. Maintenance of a constant internal environment and the implementation of behavioral patterns are main functions of which area of the brain?
a. Thalamus c. Subthalamus
b. Epithalamus d. Hypothalamus

12. The ability of the eyes to track moving objects through a visual field is primarily a function of which colliculi?
a. Inferior c. Mid
b. Superior d. Posterior

13. What parts of the brain mediate the expression of affect, both emotional and behavioral states?
a. Hypothalamus and subthalamus c. Limbic system and prefrontal cortex
b. Parietal and frontal lobes d. Basal ganglia and medulla oblongata

14. Reflex activities concerned with heart rate, blood pressure, respirations, sneezing, swallowing, and coughing are controlled by which area of the brain?
a. Pons c. Cerebellum
b. Midbrain d. Medulla oblongata

15. From which part of the midbrain do cranial nerves V to VIII emerge?
a. Midbrain c. Medulla oblongata
b. Pons d. Lateral colliculi

16. From which part of the midbrain do cranial nerves IX to XII emerge?
a. Midbrain c. Medulla oblongata
b. Pons d. Lateral colliculi

17. Which area of the brain assumes the responsibility for conscious and unconscious muscle synergy and for maintaining balance and posture?
a. Cerebrum c. Diencephalon
b. Cerebellum d. Brainstem

18. Which statement is true regarding upper motor neurons?
a. Upper motor neurons directly influence muscles.
b. They modify spinal reflex arcs.
c. Upper motor neurons are located in the gray matter of the spinal cord.
d. They extend their dendritic processes out of the CNS.

19. The membrane that separates the brain’s cerebellum from its cerebrum is the:
a. Tentorium cerebelli c. Arachnoid membrane
b. Falx cerebri d. Falx cerebelli

20. The function of arachnoid villi is to:
a. Produce cerebrospinal fluid
b. Provide nutrients to the choroid plexuses
c. Transmit impulses within the meninges
d. Absorb cerebrospinal fluid into the cerebral venous sinuses

21. Where is the cerebrospinal fluid produced?
a. Arachnoid villi c. Ependymal cells
b. Choroid plexuses d. Pia mater

22. Which of the meninges closely adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord and follows the sulci and fissures?
a. Dura mater c. Pia mater
b. Arachnoid d. Inner dura

23. Norepinephrine produces what primary response?
a. Increased contractility of the heart c. Vasoconstriction
b. Release of renin from the kidney d. Pupillary dilation

24. What is an effect of the sympathetic nervous system?
a. Stimulation of peristalsis c. Reduction in heart rate
b. Increased blood sugar levels d. Pupillary constriction

25. The brain receives approximately what percentage of the cardiac output?
a. 80% c. 20%
b. 40% d. 10%

26. The collateral blood flow to the brain is provided by the:
a. Carotid arteries c. Circle of Willis
b. Basal artery d. Vertebral arteries

27. The nurse recognizes that a patient’s diagnosis of a viral infection of the brain’s meningeal layer is supported by which diagnostic laboratory result?
a. Chloride <110 mEq/L c. Protein <10 mg/dl b. Leukocytes >10/mm3 d. Glucose <40 mg/dl MULTIPLE RESPONSE 28. Which cranial nerves contain parasympathetic nerves? (Select all that apply.) a. I (olfactory) d. IX (glossopharyngeal) b. III (oculomotor) e. X (vagus) c. VII (facial) 29. The sympathetic nervous system primarily serves to protect an individual by doing which of the following? (Select all that apply.) a. Decreasing mucous production d. Decreasing sweat excretion b. Increasing blood sugar levels e. Increasing blood pressure c. Increasing body temperature 30. The aging process brings about what changes to human cells? (Select all that apply.) a. Increased neurofibrillary tangles d. Decreased myelin presence b. Imbalance of neurotransmitters e. Altered dendrite structure c. Increased neuron production 31. Which statement is true regarding the blood-brain barrier (BBB)? (Select all that apply.) a. The BBB is dependent on astrocytes. b. It uses the meningeal layers of the brain. c. It restricts the flow of large molecules, such as potassium. d. Naturally occurring inflammatory mediators affect the BBB. e. The BBB appears to play a role in slowing down the onset of degenerative brain disease. 32. A nurse caring for an older adult patient would expect which functional changes to occur? (Select all that apply.) a. Increased risk for falls b. Increased risk for falls c. Loss of muscle in the arms and legs d. Decrease in the need for social interaction e. Increased agitation and frustration levels 33. What evidence does the nurse expect to see when a patient experiences trauma to the hypothalamus? (Select all that apply.) a. Uneven expression of mood b. Unstable blood glucose levels c. Poor regulation of body temperature d. Visual disturbances such as blurred vision e. Nausea, vomiting, and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease 34. A Schwann cell: (Select all that apply.) a. Can form the myelin sheath. b. Is also referred to as a neurolemmocyte. c. Affects the function of the nodes of Ranvier. d. Is located in the peripheral nervous system. e. Is responsible of decreasing conduction velocity. MATCHING Match the function with the appropriate cranial nerve. ______ A. Fibers emerge from the posterior midbrain and exit from the skull to run to the eye. ______ B. Provides motor and sensory functions to the face, mouth, nose, and eyes. ______ C. Fibers emerge from the midbrain, exit from the skull, and extend to the eye. ______ D. Controls motor functions to the pharynx and salivary glands and sensory functions from the pharynx and tongue. ______ E. Innervates muscles that move the eye laterally. ______ F. Affects control over the motor fibers to the muscles of tongue and sensory impulses from the tongue to the brain. ______ G. Is purely sensory and carries impulses for the sense of smell. ______ H. Is made up of parasympathetic motor fibers that supply the smooth muscles of the abdominal organs. ______ I. Transmits impulses for the sense of hearing. ______ J. Carries sensory and motor fibers to the pharynx and larynx. 35. Glossopharyngeal nerve 36. Oculomotor nerve 37. Trochlear nerve 38. Abducens nerve 39. Trigeminal nerve 40. Hypoglossal nerve 41. Vagus nerve 42. Spinal accessory nerve 43. Olfactory nerve 44. Vestibulocochlear nerve

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