Quiz 18: Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and the Neuromuscular Junction

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Quiz 18: Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and the Neuromuscular Junction

Questions 42
Instructor Verified Answers Included
WarofGrades Guaranteed A+ Graded Tutorial

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Diffuse axonal injuries (DAIs) of the brain often result in:
a. Reduced levels of consciousness c. Fine motor tremors
b. Mild but permanent dysfunction d. Visual disturbances

2. What event is most likely to occur to the brain in a classic cerebral concussion?
a. Brief period of vital sign instability
b. Cerebral edema throughout the cerebral cortex
c. Cerebral edema throughout the diencephalon
d. Disruption of axons extending from the diencephalon and brainstem

3. Which disorder has clinical manifestations that include decreased consciousness for up to 6 hours, as well as retrograde and posttraumatic amnesia?
a. Mild concussion c. Cortical contusion
b. Classic concussion d. Acute subdural hematoma

4. What group is most at risk of spinal cord injury from minor trauma?
a. Children c. Adults
b. Adolescents d. Older adults

5. The edema of the upper cervical cord after spinal cord injury is considered life threatening because of which possible outcome?
a. Hypovolemic shock from blood lost during the injury
b. Breathing difficulties from an impairment to the diaphragm
c. Head injury that likely occurred during the injury
d. Spinal shock immediately after the injury

6. What indicates that spinal shock is terminating?
a. Voluntary movement below the level of injury
b. Reflex emptying of the bladder
c. Paresthesia below the level of injury
d. Decreased deep tendon reflexes and flaccid paralysis

7. What term is used to describe the complication that can result from a spinal cord injury above T6 that is producing paroxysmal hypertension, as well as piloerection and sweating above the spinal cord lesion?
a. Craniosacral dysreflexia c. Autonomic hyperreflexia
b. Parasympathetic dysreflexia d. Retrograde hyperreflexia

8. Why does a person who has a spinal cord injury experience faulty control of sweating?
a. The hypothalamus is unable to regulate body heat as a result of damage to the sympathetic nervous system.
b. The thalamus is unable to regulate body heat as a result of damage to the sympathetic nervous system.
c. The hypothalamus is unable to regulate body heat as a result of damage to the parasympathetic nervous system.
d. The thalamus is unable to regulate body heat as a result of damage to spinal nerve roots.

9. Autonomic hyperreflexia–induced bradycardia is a result of stimulation of the:
a. Sympathetic nervous system to ß-adrenergic receptors to the sinoatrial node
b. Carotid sinus to the vagus nerve to the sinoatrial node
c. Parasympathetic nervous system to the glossopharyngeal nerve to the atrioventricular node
d. Bundle branches to the -adrenergic receptors to the sinoatrial node

10. A herniation of which disk will likely result in motor and sensory changes of the lateral lower legs and soles of the feet?
a. L2-L3 c. L5-S1
b. L3-L5 d. S2-S3

11. Which condition poses the highest risk for a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?
a. Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus c. Polycythemia
b. Hypertension d. Smoking

12. A right hemisphere embolic CVA has resulted in left-sided paralysis and reduced sensation of the left foot and leg. Which cerebral artery is most likely affected by the emboli?
a. Middle cerebral c. Posterior cerebral
b. Vertebral d. Anterior cerebral

13. Atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease, and valvular prosthetics are risk factors for which type of stroke?
a. Hemorrhagic c. Embolic
b. Thrombotic d. Lacunar

14. Microinfarcts resulting in pure motor or pure sensory deficits are the result of which type of stroke?
a. Embolic c. Lacunar
b. Hemorrhagic d. Thrombotic

15. Which vascular malformation is characterized by arteries that feed directly into veins through vascular tangles of abnormal vessels?
a. Cavernous angioma c. Arteriovenous angioma
b. Capillary telangiectasia d. Arteriovenous malformation

16. Which clinical finding is considered a diagnostic indicator for an arteriovenous malformation (AVM)?
a. Systolic bruit over the carotid artery
b. Decreased level of consciousness
c. Hypertension with bradycardia
d. Diastolic bruit over the temporal artery

17. Which cerebral vascular hemorrhage causes meningeal irritation, photophobia, and positive Kernig and Brudzinski signs?
a. Intracranial c. Epidural
b. Subarachnoid d. Subdural

18. In adults, most intracranial tumors are located:
a. Infratentorially c. Laterally
b. Supratentiorially d. Posterolaterally

19. In children, most intracranial tumors are located:
a. Infratentorially c. Laterally
b. Supratentiorially d. Posterolaterally

20. The most common primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor is the:
a. Microglioma c. Astrocytoma
b. Neuroblastoma d. Neuroma

21. Meningiomas characteristically compress from:
a. Within neural tissues c. Outside the spinal cord
b. Outside spinal nerve roots d. Within the subarachnoid space

22. What is the central component of the pathogenic model of multiple sclerosis?
a. Myelination of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
b. Demyelination of nerve fibers in the CNS
c. Development of neurofibrillary tangles in the CNS
d. Inherited autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance

23. A blunt force injury to the forehead would result in a coup injury to which region of the brain?
a. Frontal c. Parietal
b. Temporal d. Occipital

24. A blunt force injury to the forehead would result in a contrecoup injury to which region of the brain?
a. Frontal c. Parietal
b. Temporal d. Occipital

25. Spinal cord injuries most likely occur in which region?
a. Cervical and thoracic c. Lumbar and sacral
b. Thoracic and lumbar d. Cervical and thoracic-lumbar

26. The most likely rationale for body temperature fluctuations after cervical spinal cord injury is that the person has:
a. Developed bilateral pneumonia or a urinary tract infection.
b. Sustain sympathetic nervous system damage resulting in disturbed thermal control.
c. Sustained a head injury that damaged the hypothalamus’s ability to regulate temperature.
d. Developed septicemia from posttrauma infection.

27. A man who sustained a cervical spinal cord injury 2 days ago suddenly develops severe hypertension and bradycardia. He reports severe head pain and blurred vision. The most likely explanation for these clinical manifestations is that he is:
a. Experiencing acute anxiety
b. Developing spinal shock
c. Developing autonomic hyperreflexia
d. Experiencing parasympathetic areflexia

28. The type of vascular malformation that most often results in hemorrhage is:
a. Cavernous angioma c. Capillary telangiectasia
b. Venous angioma d. Arteriovenous malformation

29. Atheromatous plaques are most commonly found:
a. In larger veins c. At branches of arteries
b. Near capillary sphincters d. On the venous sinuses

30. Multiple sclerosis is best described as a(an):
a. Central nervous system demyelination, possibly from an immunogenetic virus
b. Inadequate supply of acetylcholine at the neurotransmitter junction as a result of an autoimmune disorder
c. Depletion of dopamine in the central nervous system as a result of a virus
d. Degenerative disorder of lower and upper motor neurons caused by viral-immune factors

31. What is the most common opportunistic infection associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)?
a. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma c. Toxoplasmosis
b. Kaposi sarcoma d. Cytomegalovirus

32. It is true that Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS):
a. Is preceded by a viral illness. c. Results in asymmetric paralysis.
b. Involves a deficit in acetylcholine. d. Is an outcome of HIV.

33. It is true that myasthenia gravis:
a. Is an acute autoimmune disease. c. May result in adrenergic crisis.
b. Affects the nerve roots. d. Causes muscle weakness.

34. In which disorder are acetylcholine receptor antibodies (IgG antibodies) produced against acetylcholine receptors?
a. Guillain-Barré syndrome c. Myasthenia gravis
b. Multiple sclerosis d. Parkinson disease

35. Multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome are similar in that they both:
a. Result from demyelination by an immune reaction.
b. Cause permanent destruction of peripheral nerves.
c. Result from inadequate production of neurotransmitters.
d. Block acetylcholine receptor sites at the myoneuronal junction.

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

36. Which clinical manifestation is characteristic of cluster headaches? (Select all that apply.)
a. Preheadache aura
b. Severe unilateral tearing
c. Gradual onset of a tight band around the head
d. Significant unilateral, temporal pain
e. Pain lasting from 30 to 120 minutes

37. What are the initial clinical manifestations immediately noted after a spinal cord injury? (Select all that apply.)
a. Headache
b. Bladder incontinence
c. Loss of deep tendon reflexes
d. Hypertension
e. Flaccid paralysis

MATCHING

Match the terms with the corresponding descriptions.
______ A. Complication of mastoiditis
______ B. Opportunistic infection
______ C. CNS manifestation of tuberculosis
______ D. Mosquito-borne viral infection
______ E. Tick-borne bacterial infection

38. Meningitis

39. Encephalitis

40. Cryptococcus neoformans

41. Brain abscess

42. Lyme disease

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