Quiz 19: Neurobiology of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders
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1. Which would be considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia?
a. Blunted affect c. Poverty of speech
b. Auditory hallucinations d. Lack of social interaction
2. The onset of schizophrenia can be triggered by which prenatal occurrence?
a. Viral infection c. Maternal smoking
b. Maternal depression d. Exposure to toxic waste
3. Which neurotransmitter is reduced in people with schizophrenia?
a. Dopamine c. Acetylcholine
b. Gamma-aminobutyric acid d. Serotonin
4. Alterations in which part of the brain are linked to hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorders associated with schizophrenia?
a. Parietal lobe c. Temporal lobe
b. Limbic system d. Hypothalamus
5. Antipsychotic drugs block which neurotransmitter receptor?
a. Norepinephrine c. Serotonin
b. Gamma-aminobutyric acid d. Dopamine
6. What data confer the link between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia?
a. Individuals with bipolar disorder who exhibit psychotic behaviors have deficits in reelin expression linked to genetic loci located on chromosome 22.
b. Individuals with schizophrenia who exhibit psychotic behaviors have deficits in serotonin linked to genetic loci located on chromosome 16.
c. Individuals with bipolar disorder who exhibit psychotic behaviors have deficits in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) linked to genetic loci located on chromosome 20.
d. Individuals with schizophrenia who exhibit psychotic behaviors have deficits in reelin expression linked to genetic loci located on chromosome 18.
7. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system abnormalities exist in a large percentage of individuals with:
a. Schizophrenia c. Mania
b. Major depression d. Panic disorder
8. The common property among the three types of medications used to treat depression is that they:
a. Increase neurotransmitter levels within the synapse.
b. Increase neurotransmitter levels in the presynapse.
c. Decrease neurotransmitter levels in the postsynapse.
d. Decrease neurotransmitter levels within the synapse.
9. The link between major depression and cortisol secretion is that individuals with depression:
a. Show suppression of plasma cortisol when given dexamethasone.
b. Have a decreased plasma cortisol level, despite the administration of exogenous corticosteroids.
c. Show that persistently elevated plasma cortisol levels can result in inflammation that is believed to trigger depression.
d. Have normal plasma cortisol levels throughout the day when they take antidepressant medication as prescribed.
10. A decrease in receptor binding for which neurotransmitter is found in individuals with depression?
a. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine
b. Serotonin d. Acetylcholine
11. When treating individuals with depression, the result produced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is believed to be an alteration in:
a. The monoamine systems c. Norepinephrine
b. Serotonin d. The limbic system
12. Which electrolyte imbalance contributes to lithium toxicity?
a. Hypernatremia c. Hyperkalemia
b. Hyponatremia d. Hypokalemia
13. Which neurotransmitter is inhibited in panic disorders?
a. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine
b. Serotonin d. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
14. A criterion for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a period of excessive worrying that lasts for at least how many months?
a. 3 c. 9
b. 6 d. 12
15. Individuals who eat aged cheese and avocado when taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may experience:
a. Kidney damage c. Orthostatic hypotension
b. Hypertensive crisis d. Weight gain
16. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used to treat depression:
a. In pregnant women
b. By enhancing the effect of antidepressants
c. As a first-line treatment before medications
d. That is unipolar
17. A notable complication of panic disorder is:
a. Avolition c. Alogia
b. Anhedonia d. Agoraphobia
18. Persistent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include:
a. Depression c. Nightmares
b. Hypertension d. Poor nutrition
19. Hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorders occur with alterations to which part of the brain?
a. Temporal lobe c. Hypothalamus
b. Parietal lobe d. Cerebral cortex
20. Significant numbers of individuals with depression have problems related to: (Select all that apply.)
a. Sleep cycles
b. Weight stabilization
c. Eating patterns
d. Thyroid function
e. Cognitive skills
21. Which neurotransmitter is inhibited in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)? (Select all that apply.)
22. What are the most common side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)? (Select all that apply.)
a. Orthostatic hypotension
b. Dry mouth
c. Sleep disturbances
Match the terms with the corresponding descriptions.
______ A. Delusions
______ B. Formal thought disorder
______ C. Anhedonia
______ D. Hallucinations
______ E. Alogia
______ F. Avolition
23. Perceptions are experienced without external stimulation of the sense organs.
24. Persistent beliefs are contrary to the educational and cultural background of the individual.
25. Fluent speech is difficult to comprehend.
26. Spontaneous speech is absent.
27. Condition is characterized by an inability to have emotional experiences.
28. Condition is characterized by a deficit in spontaneous or goal-directed activities.