Quiz 20: Alterations of Neurologic Function in Children
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1. The neural groove closes dorsally during which week of gestational life?
a. Second c. Eighth
b. Fourth d. Twelfth
2. Which nutritional deficiency in a pregnant woman is associated with neural tube defect (NTD)?
a. Iron c. Zinc
b. Vitamin C d. Folate
3. Which defect of neural tube closure is most common?
a. Anterior c. Lateral
b. Posterior d. Midline
4. What is the anomaly in which the soft bony component of the skull and much of the brain is missing?
a. Anencephaly c. Cranial meningocele
b. Myelodysplasia d. Hydrocephaly
5. The most common cause of obstructive hydrocephalus in infants is:
a. Obstructed arachnoid villi
b. Stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius
c. Excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid
d. Impaired cerebrospinal fluid circulation in the subarachnoid space
6. What is the term for a herniation or protrusion of brain and meninges through a defect in the skull?
a. Encephalocele c. Arachnoidocele
b. Meningocele d. Cephacephalocele
7. What is the result of a Chiari type II malformation associated with a myelomeningocele?
a. Upward displacement of the cerebellum into the diencephalon
b. Motor and sensory lesions below the level of the myelomeningocele
c. Downward displacement of the cerebellum, brainstem, and fourth ventricle
d. Generalized cerebral edema and hydrocephalus
8. Prompt surgical repair of a myelomeningocele is critical to best prevent:
a. Infection c. Mental retardation
b. Paralysis d. Additional nervous system damage
9. Which body system is the largest site for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants and children?
a. Central nervous system c. Integumentary system
b. Gastrointestinal system d. Musculoskeletal system
10. An infant diagnosed with hydrocephalus is observed to demonstrate:
a. Shrunken ventricles
b. Bulging fontanels
c. Retarded head growth
d. Decreased production of cerebrospinal fluid
11. Gait disturbances and instability are characteristic of which form of cerebral palsy?
a. Spastic c. Ataxic
b. Dyskinetic d. Biochemical
12. Children with phenylketonuria (PKU) are unable to synthesize:
a. Essential amino acid, phenylalanine, to tyrosine
b. Renin, erythropoietin, and antidiuretic hormone
c. Aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens
d. Neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine
13. Benign febrile seizures are characterized by:
a. A temperature lower than 39° C
b. Respiratory or ear infections
c. Onset after the fifth year of life
d. Episodes lasting 30 minutes or longer
14. What is the most common general symptom of a localized childhood brain tumor?
a. Poor bonding
b. Increased intracranial pressure
c. Delayed extinction of newborn reflexes
d. Failure to thrive
15. The tonic neck reflex observed in a newborn should no longer be obtainable by:
a. 2 years c. 10 months
b. 1 year d. 5 months
16. What term is used to describe a hernial protrusion of a saclike cyst that contains meninges, spinal fluid, and a portion of the spinal cord through a defect in a posterior arch of a vertebra?
a. Encephalocele c. Spina bifida occulta
b. Meningocele d. Myelomeningocele
17. What test is performed on amniotic fluid and maternal blood to test for neural tube defect?
a. Total protein c. -fetoprotein
b. Culture d. C-reactive protein
18. The clinical manifestations of dyskinetic cerebral palsy include:
a. Increased muscle tone and prolonged primitive reflexes
b. Exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, clonus, and rigidity of extremities
c. Scoliosis, contractures, and stiffness of trunk muscles
d. Jerky uncontrolled and abrupt fine musculoskeletal movements
19. Which musculoskeletal deformities are associated with myelomeningocele? (Select all that apply.)
a. Extra digits on feet
c. Dislocation of the hips
20. True microcephaly can be caused by: (Select all that apply.)
a. Autosomal gene alterations
b. Prenatal physical abuse of the mother
c. X-linked gene alterations
d. Toxic-induced chromosomal defects
e. Maternal anorexia
21. Which statements regarding the term myelodysplasia are true? (Select all that apply.)
a. Myelodysplasia is used to define a defect in the formation of the spinal cord.
b. It can be used to refer to brain anomalies involving missing brain tissue.
c. Myelodysplasia correctly includes encephaloceles.
d. It is used to describe a herniation of brain and meninges through a defect in the skull.
e. Myelodysplasia can be used to refer to a form of spina bifida.
Match the tumor name with its site of development.
______ A. Medulloblastoma
______ B. Ependymoma
______ C. Cerebellar astrocytoma
______ D. Craniopharyngioma
______ E. Neuroblastoma
22. Originates in the neural crest that normally forms the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla.
23. Develops in the fourth ventricle.
24. Develops in the vermis of the cerebellum and may extend to the fourth ventricle.
25. Originates from the pituitary or hypothalamus.
26. Causes unilateral symptoms such as nystagmus.