Quiz 21: Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation
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1. What imbalance lessens the rate of secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
a. Increased serum calcium levels
b. Decreased serum magnesium levels
c. Decreased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone
d. Increased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone
2. Regulation of the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla is an example of which type of regulation?
a. Negative feedback c. Neural
b. Positive feedback d. Physiologic
3. How does a faulty negative-feedback mechanism result in a hormonal imbalance?
a. Hormones are not synthesized in response to cellular and tissue activities.
b. Decreased hormonal secretion is a response to rising hormone levels.
c. Too little hormone production is initiated.
d. Excessive hormone production results from a failure to turn off the system.
4. Which substance is a water-soluble protein hormone?
a. Thyroxine c. Follicle-stimulating hormone
b. Aldosterone d. Insulin
5. Which of the following is a lipid-soluble hormone?
a. Cortisol c. Epinephrine
b. Oxytocin d. Growth hormone
6. Most protein hormones are transported in the bloodstream and are:
a. Bound to a lipid-soluble carrier
b. Free in an unbound, water-soluble form
c. Bound to a water soluble–binding protein
d. Free because of their lipid-soluble chemistry
7. When insulin binds its receptors on muscle cells, an increase in glucose uptake by the muscle cells is the result. This is an example of what type of effect by a hormone?
a. Pharmacologic c. Synergistic
b. Permissive d. Direct
8. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is released to stimulate thyroid hormone (TH) and is inhibited when plasma levels of TH are adequate. This is an example of:
a. Positive feedback c. Neural regulation
b. Negative feedback d. Physiologic regulation
9. Lipid-soluble hormone receptors are located:
a. Inside the plasma membrane in the cytoplasm
b. On the outer surface of the plasma membrane
c. Inside the mitochondria
d. On the inner surface of the plasma membrane
10. Which second messenger is stimulated by epinephrine binding to a -adrenergic receptor?
b. Inositol triphosphate (IP3)
c. Diacylglycerol (DAG)
d. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
11. Which hormone does the second messenger calcium (Ca++) bind to activate phospholipase C through a G protein?
a. Angiotensin II c. Estrogen
b. Thyroxine d. Testosterone
12. The control of calcium in cells is important because it:
a. Is controlled by the calcium negative-feedback loop.
b. Is continuously synthesized.
c. Acts as a second messenger.
d. Carries lipid-soluble hormones in the bloodstream.
13. The portion of the pituitary that secretes oxytocin is:
a. Posterior c. Anterior
b. Inferior d. Superior
14. Antidiuretic hormone acts to cause vasoconstriction when:
a. Urine output is less than 20 ml/hr.
b. Serum osmolality is increased.
c. Osmotic and oncotic pressures are increased.
d. Vasopressin is pharmacologically administered.
15. What is the target tissue for prolactin-releasing factor?
a. Hypothalamus c. Mammary glands
b. Anterior pituitary d. Posterior pituitary
16. Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH) synthesized, and where does it act?
a. Hypothalamus; renal tubular cells c. Anterior pituitary; posterior pituitary
b. Renal tubules; renal collecting ducts d. Posterior pituitary; loop of Henle
17. Where is oxytocin synthesized?
a. Hypothalamus c. Anterior pituitary
b. Paraventricular nuclei d. Posterior pituitary
18. The releasing hormones that are made in the hypothalamus travel to the anterior pituitary via the:
a. Vessels of the zona fasciculata c. Hypophyseal stalk
b. Infundibular stem d. Portal hypophyseal blood vessels
19. Which mineral is needed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to stimulate the secretion of thyroid hormone (TH)?
a. Iron c. Iodide
b. Zinc d. Copper
20. Which hormone triggers uterine contractions?
a. Thyroxine c. Growth hormone
b. Oxytocin d. Insulin
21. What effect does hyperphosphatemia have on other electrolytes?
a. Increases serum calcium. c. Decreases serum magnesium.
b. Decreases serum calcium. d. Increases serum magnesium.
22. Insulin transports which electrolyte in the cell?
a. Potassium c. Sodium
b. Calcium d. Phosphorus
23. A person who has experienced physiologic stresses will have increased levels of which hormone?
a. Adrenocorticotropic hormone c. Somatostatin
b. Thyroid hormone d. Alpha endorphin
24. What is the action of calcitonin?
a. Increases metabolism. c. Increases serum calcium.
b. Decreases metabolism. d. Decreases serum calcium.
25. Which hormone is involved in the regulation of serum calcium levels?
a. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
b. Thyroxine (T4)
c. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
d. Triiodothyronine (T3)
26. Which hormone inhibits the secretion of growth hormone (GH)?
a. Somatostatin c. Thyroid-stimulating hormone
b. Thyroxine d. Calcitonin
27. Target cells for parathyroid hormone are located in the:
a. Tubules of nephrons c. Glomeruli of nephrons
b. Thyroid gland d. Smooth and skeletal muscles
28. Which compound or hormone is secreted by the adrenal medulla?
a. Cortisol c. Androgens
b. Epinephrine d. Aldosterone
29. The secretion of adrenocorticotropic-stimulating hormone (ACTH) will result in the increased level of which hormone?
a. Thyroxine c. Cortisol.
b. Insulin d. Antidiuretic hormone
30. Which human physiologic system is believed to be an integral factor in unhealthy aging?
a. Cardiac c. Central nervous
b. Endocrine d. Urinary
31. What are the effects of aging on pancreatic cells?
a. Pancreatic cells are replaced by fat cells.
b. Increased insulin production is typical.
c. Beta cell production increases.
d. No appreciable change occurs on pancreatic cells.
32. Aldosterone directly increases the reabsorption of:
a. Magnesium c. Sodium
b. Calcium d. Water
33. Which is an expected hormonal change in an older patient?
a. Thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion below normal
b. Triiodothyronine level below normal
c. Cortisol level below normal
d. Adrenocorticotropic hormone level above normal
Aging causes overall thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion to diminish but does not bring about the other changes.
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34. What are actions of glucocorticoids? (Select all that apply.)
a. Decreasing muscle cell reuptake of glucose
b. Fat storage
c. Decreased blood glucose
d. Carbohydrate metabolism
e. Liver gluconeogenesis
Match the anatomic structure with its hormone. Names of structures may be used more than once.
______ A. Anterior pituitary
______ B. Posterior pituitary
______ C. Thyroid
______ D. Adrenal cortex
______ E. Adrenal medulla