Quiz 24: Alterations of the Female Reproductive System
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1. In 95% of children of delayed puberty, the problem is caused by:
a. Disruption in the hypothalamus c. Deficit in estrogen or testosterone
b. Disruption of the pituitary d. Physiologic hormonal delays
2. What is the first sign of puberty in girls?
a. Breast enlargement c. Menstruation
b. Growth of pubic hair d. Vaginal discharge
3. Which type of precocious puberty causes the child to develop some secondary sex characteristics of the opposite sex?
a. Mixed c. Isosexual
b. Incomplete d. Homosexual
4. The release of which chemical mediator causes primary dysmenorrhea?
a. Leukotrienes c. Bradykinin
b. Prostaglandins d. C-reactive protein
5. Considering the pathophysiologic characteristics of primary amenorrhea, what anatomic structure is involved in compartment II?
a. Ovary c. Hypothalamus
b. Anterior pituitary d. Vagina
6. Considering the pathophysiologic characteristics of primary amenorrhea, what anatomic structure is involved in compartment IV?
a. Vagina c. Ovary
b. Hypothalamus d. Anterior pituitary
7. Which condition is considered a clinical cause of amenorrhea?
a. Disorder in the endometrium c. Lack of physical exercise
b. Obstruction of the fallopian tubes d. Failure to ovulate
8. Clinical manifestations that include irregular or heavy bleeding, the passage of large clots, and the depletion of iron stores support which diagnosis?
a. Premenstrual syndrome c. Polycystic ovary syndrome
b. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding d. Primary dysmenorrhea
9. What statement concerning the pathogenetic mechanisms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS) is true?
a. POS causes a decrease in leptin levels; this decrease reduces the hypothalamic pulsatility of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which reduces the number of follicles that mature.
b. POS is a result of a disorder in the anterior pituitary that increases the follicle-stimulating hormone, which reduces the luteinizing hormone released.
c. POS is a result of a combination of conditions that include oligo-ovulation or anovulation, elevated levels of androgens, or clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries.
d. POS inhibits testosterone, which stimulates androgen secretion by the ovarian stroma and indirectly reduces sex hormone–binding globulin.
10. What is the leading cause of infertility in women?
a. Pelvic inflammatory disease c. Salpingitis
b. Endometriosis d. Polycystic ovary syndrome
11. Considering the mediating factors of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which medication may be used either continually or only during the menstrual period as a treatment for the condition?
a. NSAIDs c. SSRIs
b. Estrogen d. Progesterone
12. Which statement regarding pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is true?
a. An episode of mild PID can decrease the possibility of a successful pregnancy by 80%.
b. Such an inflammation results in temporary changes to the ciliated epithelium of the fallopian tubes.
c. PID has not been associated with an increased risk of an ectopic pregnancy.
d. Contracting this infection increases the risk of uterine cancer.
13. When a woman’s uterus is assessed as protruding through the entrance of the vagina to the hymen, which grade of prolapse does this indicate?
a. 0 c. 2
b. 1 d. 3
14. Which term is used to identify the descent of the posterior bladder and trigone into the vaginal canal?
a. Rectocele c. Cystocele
b. Vaginocele d. Enterocele
15. What type of cyst develops when an ovarian follicle is stimulated but no dominant follicle develops and completes the maturity process?
a. Follicular c. Corpus albicans
b. Corpus luteal d. Benign ovarian
16. Which term is used to identify benign uterine tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the myometrium and are commonly called uterine fibroids?
a. Endometrial polyps c. Leiomyomas
b. Myometrial polyps d. Myometriomas
17. What theory is used to describe the cause of endometriosis?
a. Obstruction within the fallopian tubes prevents the endometrial tissue from adhering to the lining of the uterus.
b. Endometrial tissue passes through the fallopian tubes and into the peritoneal cavity and remains responsive to hormones.
c. Inflammation of the endometrial tissue develops after recurrent sexually transmitted diseases.
d. Endometrial tissue lies dormant in the uterus until the ovaries produce sufficient hormone to stimulate its growth.
18. Which virus is a precursor for developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer?
a. Human papillomavirus (HPV) c. Herpes simplex II virus (HSV)
b. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) d. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
19. Which description is used when a progressive neoplastic change involves the full epithelial thickness of the cervix?
a. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia c. Cervical carcinoma in situ
b. Cervical dysplasia d. Invasive carcinoma of the cervix
20. Which factor increases the risk for ovarian cancer after the age of 40 years?
a. Use of fertility drugs c. Multiple pregnancies
b. Oral contraceptive use d. Prolonged lactation
21. Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after how many months of unprotected intercourse with the same partner?
a. 6 c. 18
b. 12 d. 24
22. Which of the following is not considered a cause of galactorrhea?
a. Proliferation of the lactiferous ducts of the breast
b. Hypothyroidism, resulting from a decrease in thyroid-releasing hormone
c. Excess prolactin secretion from the pituitary
d. Drugs such as high-dose oral contraceptives and phenothiazines
23. Fluid-filled squishy sacs characterize which breast disorder?
a. Paget disease c. Nonproliferative breast lesions
b. Cysts d. Lobular carcinoma in situ
24. What are typical findings on breast palpation of a woman diagnosed with simple fibroadenoma?
a. Painful, round, movable, and fluid-filled mass
b. Painless, movable, hard, and irregular mass
c. Smooth, solid, mobile, and well-circumscribed mass
d. Smooth, nonmovable, irregular, and soft mass
25. Which benign breast tumor affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by the principal lactiferous ducts becoming dilated and filled with cellular debris?
a. Mammary duct ectasia c. Phyllodes tumor
b. Intraductal papilloma d. Fibroadenoma
26. The majority of the small percentage of ovarian cancers that are associated with a known pattern of inheritance are associated with:
a. Susceptibility of the BRCA1 gene
b. Mutations of the BRCA2 gene
c. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome
d. Low progesterone levels
27. What is usually the first clinical manifestation of breast cancer?
a. Nipple dimpling c. Enlargement of one breast
b. Nipple discharge d. Painless lump
28. What is a recognized treatment for the symptoms often associated with pelvic organ prolapse? (Select all that apply.)
b. Kegel exercises
c. Estrogen therapy
d. Surgical repair
e. Bearing down exercises
29. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), secondary to ovarian dysfunction, is abnormal uterine bleeding resulting from: (Select all that apply.)
b. Progesterone deficiency
c. Sexually transmitted infections
d. Congenital abnormalities in the uterine structure
e. Estrogen excess
30. The size of benign uterine tumors, such as leiomyomas, is thought to be caused by the influence of which hormone? (Select all that apply.)
c. Luteinizing hormone
d. Gonadotropin-stimulating hormone
e. Growth factors
31. What are the common clinical manifestations of endometriosis? (Select all that apply.)
a. Back and flank pain