Quiz 31: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

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Quiz 31: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

Questions
Instructor Verified Answers Included
WarofGrades Guaranteed A+ Graded Tutorial

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which statement does not accurately describe the pericardium?
a. The pericardium is a double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart.
b. It is made up of connective tissue and a surface layer of squamous cells.
c. The pericardium protects the heart against infection and inflammation from the lungs and pleural space.
d. It contains pain and mechanoreceptors that can elicit reflex changes in blood pressure and heart rate.

2. Which cardiac chamber has the thinnest wall and why?
a. The right and left atria; they are low-pressure chambers that serve as storage units and conduits for blood.
b. The right and left atria; they are not directly involved in the preload, contractility, or afterload of the heart.
c. The left ventricle; the mean pressure of blood coming into this ventricle is from the lung, which has a low pressure.
d. The right ventricle; it pumps blood into the pulmonary capillaries, which have a lower pressure compared with the systemic circulation.

3. Which chamber of the heart endures the highest pressures?
a. Right atrium c. Left ventricle
b. Left atrium d. Right ventricle

4. What is the process that ensures mitral and tricuspid valve closure after the ventricles are filled with blood?
a. Chordae tendineae relax, which allows the valves to close.
b. Increased pressure in the ventricles pushes the valves to close.
c. Trabeculae carneae contract, which pulls the valves closed.
d. Reduced pressure in the atria creates a negative pressure that pulls the valves closed.

5. Regarding the heart’s valves, what is a function of the papillary muscles?
a. The papillary muscles close the semilunar valve.
b. These muscles prevent backward expulsion of the atrioventricular valve.
c. They close the atrioventricular valve.
d. The papillary muscles open the semilunar valve.

6. During the cardiac cycle, why do the aortic and pulmonic valves close after the ventricles relax?
a. Papillary muscles relax, which allows the valves to close.
b. Chordae tendineae contract, which pulls the valves closed.
c. Reduced pressure in the ventricles creates a negative pressure, which pulls the valves closed.
d. Blood fills the cusps of the valves and causes the edges to merge, closing the valves.

7. Oxygenated blood flows through which vessel?
a. Superior vena cava c. Pulmonary artery
b. Pulmonary veins d. Coronary veins

8. The significance of the atrial kick is that it affects the contraction of the:
a. Right atria, which is necessary to open the tricuspid valve.
b. Right atria, which is necessary to increase the blood volume from the vena cava.
c. Left atria, which increases the blood volume into the ventricle.
d. Left atria, that is necessary to open the mitral valve.

9. Occlusion of the left anterior descending artery during a myocardial infarction would interrupt blood supply to which structures?
a. Left and right ventricles and much of the interventricular septum
b. Left atrium and the lateral wall of the left ventricle
c. Upper right ventricle, right marginal branch, and right ventricle to the apex
d. Posterior interventricular sulcus and the smaller branches of both ventricles

10. Occlusion of the circumflex artery during a myocardial infarction would interrupt blood supply to which area?
a. Left and right ventricles and much of the interventricular septum
b. Posterior interventricular sulcus and the smaller branches of both ventricles
c. Upper right ventricle, right marginal branch, and right ventricle to the apex
d. Left atrium and the lateral wall of the left ventricle

11. The coronary ostia are located in the:
a. Left ventricle c. Coronary sinus
b. Aortic valve d. Aorta

12. The coronary sinus empties into which cardiac structure?
a. Right atrium c. Superior vena cava
b. Left atrium d. Aorta

13. What is the ratio of coronary capillaries to cardiac muscle cells?
a. 1:1 (one capillary per one muscle cell)
b. 1:2 (one capillary per two muscle cells)
c. 1:4 (one capillary per four muscle cells)
d. 1:10 (one capillary per ten muscle cells)

14. During the cardiac cycle, which structure directly delivers action potential to the ventricular myocardium?
a. Sinoatrial (SA) node c. Purkinje fibers
b. Atrioventricular (AV) node d. Bundle branches

15. What causes depolarization of a cardiac muscle cell to occur?
a. Decrease in the permeability of the cell membrane to potassium
b. Rapid movement of sodium into the cell
c. Decrease in the movement of sodium out of the cell
d. Rapid movement of calcium out of the cell

16. Which event occurs during phase 1 of the normal myocardial cell depolarization and repolarization?
a. Repolarization when potassium moves out of the cells
b. Repolarization when sodium rapidly enters into the cells
c. Early repolarization when sodium slowly enters the cells
d. Early repolarization when calcium slowly enters the cells

17. Which phase of the normal myocardial cell depolarization and repolarization correlates with diastole?
a. Phase 1 c. Phase 3
b. Phase 2 d. Phase 4

18. In the normal electrocardiogram, what does the PR interval represent?
a. Atrial depolarization
b. Ventricular depolarization
c. Atrial activation to onset of ventricular activity
d. Electrical systole of the ventricles

19. The cardiac electrical impulse normally begins spontaneously in the sinoatrial (SA) node because it:
a. Has a superior location in the right atrium.
b. Is the only area of the heart capable of spontaneous depolarization.
c. Has rich sympathetic innervation via the vagus nerve.
d. Depolarizes more rapidly than other automatic cells of the heart.

20. What period follows depolarization of the myocardium and represents a period during which no new cardiac potential can be propagated?
a. Refractory c. Threshold
b. Hyperpolarization d. Sinoatrial (SA)

21. Which complex (wave) represents the sum of all ventricular muscle cell depolarizations?
a. PRS c. QT interval
b. QRS d. P

22. What can shorten the conduction time of action potential through the atrioventricular (AV) node?
a. Parasympathetic nervous system c. Vagal stimulation
b. Catecholamines d. Sinoatrial node (SA)

23. If the sinoatrial (SA) node fails, then at what rate (depolarizations per minute) can the atrioventricular (AV) node depolarize?
a. 60 to 70 c. 30 to 40
b. 40 to 60 d. 10 to 20

24. What is the effect of epinephrine on 3 receptors on the heart?
a. Decreases coronary blood flow.
b. Supplements the effects of both 1 and 2 receptors.
c. Increases the strength of myocardial contraction.
d. Prevents overstimulation of the heart by the sympathetic nervous system.

25. Where in the heart are the receptors for neurotransmitters located?
a. Semilunar and atrioventricular (AV) valves
b. Endocardium and sinoatrial (SA) node
c. Myocardium and coronary vessels
d. Epicardium and AV node

26. What enables electrical impulses to travel in a continuous cell-to-cell fashion in myocardial cells?
a. Sarcolemma sclerotic plaques c. Trabeculae carneae
b. Intercalated disks d. Bachmann bundles

27. Within a physiologic range, what does an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (preload) result in?
a. Increase in force of contraction c. Increase in afterload
b. Decrease in refractory time d. Decrease in repolarization

28. As stated in the Frank-Starling law, a direct relationship exists between the _____ of the blood in the heart at the end of diastole and the _____ of contraction during the next systole.
a. Pressure; force c. Viscosity; force
b. Volume; strength d. Viscosity; strength

29. Pressure in the left ventricle must exceed pressure in which structure before the left ventricle can eject blood?
a. Superior vena cava c. Inferior vena cava
b. Aorta d. Pulmonary veins

30. Continuous increases in left ventricular filing pressures result in which disorder?
a. Mitral regurgitation c. Pulmonary edema
b. Mitral stenosis d. Jugular vein distention

31. When the volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole increases, the force of the myocardial contraction during the next systole will also increase, which is an example of which law or theory about the heart?
a. Laplace’s law c. Cross-bridge theory
b. Poiseuille law d. Frank-Starling law

32. The resting heart rate in a healthy person is primarily under the control of which nervous system?
a. Sympathetic c. Somatic
b. Parasympathetic d. Spinal

33. The Bainbridge reflex is thought to be initiated by sensory neurons in which cardiac location?
a. Atria c. Sinoatrial (SA) node
b. Aorta d. Ventricles

34. After the baroreceptor reflex is stimulated, the resulting impulse is transmitted from the carotid artery by which sequence of events?
a. Vagus nerve to the medulla to increase parasympathetic activity and to decrease sympathetic activity
b. Glossopharyngeal cranial nerve through the vagus nerve to the medulla to increase sympathetic activity and to decrease parasympathetic activity
c. Glossopharyngeal cranial nerve through the vagus nerve to the medulla to increase parasympathetic activity and to decrease sympathetic activity
d. Glossopharyngeal cranial nerve through the vagus nerve to the hypothalamus to increase parasympathetic activity and to decrease sympathetic activity

35. Reflex control of total cardiac output and total peripheral resistance is controlled by what mechanism?
a. Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart, arterioles, and veins
b. Sympathetic stimulation of the heart, arterioles, and veins
c. Autonomic control of the heart only
d. Somatic control of the heart, arterioles, and veins

36. What is the most important negative inotropic agent?
a. Norepinephrine c. Acetylcholine
b. Epinephrine d. Dopamine

37. The right lymphatic duct drains into which structure?
a. Right subclavian artery c. Right subclavian vein
b. Right atrium d. Superior vena cava

38. Where is the major cardiovascular center in the central nervous system?
a. Frontal lobe c. Brainstem
b. Thalamus d. Hypothalamus

39. What is an expected change in the cardiovascular system that occurs with aging?
a. Arterial stiffening
b. Decreased left ventricular wall tension
c. Decreased aortic wall thickness
d. Arteriosclerosis

40. What is the major determinant of the resistance that blood encounters as it flows through the systemic circulation?
a. Volume of blood in the systemic circulation
b. Muscle layer of the metarterioles
c. Muscle layer of the arterioles
d. Force of ventricular contraction

41. Which function of the cardiovascular system is often affected by ischemia?
a. Cardiac output (CO) c. Heart rate (HR)
b. Stroke volume (SV) d. Cardiac index (CI)

42. What physical sign is the result of turbulent blood flow through a vessel?
a. Increased blood pressure during periods of stress
b. Bounding pulse felt on palpation
c. Cyanosis observed on excretion
d. Murmur heard on auscultation

43. What is the major effect of a calcium channel blocker such as verapamil on cardiac contractions?
a. Increases the rate of cardiac contractions.
b. Decreases the strength of cardiac contractions.
c. Stabilizes the rhythm of cardiac contractions.
d. Stabilizes the vasodilation during cardiac contractions.

44. An early diastole peak caused by filling of the atrium from peripheral veins is identified by which intracardiac pressure?
a. A wave c. C wave
b. V wave d. X descent

45. Which intracardiac pressure is generated by the atrial contraction?
a. A wave c. Y descent
b. C wave d. X descent

46. Which intracardiac pressure is produced because of the descent of the tricuspid valve ring and by the ejection of blood from both ventricles?
a. V wave c. Y descent
b. C wave d. X descent

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

47. Which statements are true concerning the method in which substances pass between capillaries and the interstitial fluid? (Select all that apply.)
a. Substances pass through junctions between endothelial cells.
b. Substances pass through pores or oval windows (fenestrations).
c. Substances pass between vesicles by active transport across the endothelial cell membrane.
d. Substances pass across the endothelial cell membrane by osmosis.
e. Substances pass through endothelial cell membranes by diffusion.

MATCHING

Match the description with the corresponding terms.
_____ A. Relationship among blood flow, pressure, and resistance
_____ B. Increased heart rate from increased volume
_____ C. Relationship of wall tension, intraventricular pressure, internal radius, and wall thickness
_____ D. Cycles of attachment, movement, and dissociation of thin filaments during the attachments of actin to myosin
_____ E. Length-tension relationship of cardiac muscle

48. Poiseuille law

49. Cross-bridge theory

50. Frank-Starling law

51. Laplace’s law

52. Bainbridge reflex

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