Quiz 34: Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System
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1. What pulmonary defense mechanism propels a mucous blanket that entraps particles moving toward the oropharynx?
a. Nasal turbinates c. Cilia
b. Alveolar macrophages d. Irritant receptors on the nares
2. Which term is used to identify the movement of gas and air into and out of the lungs?
a. Perfusion c. Respiration
b. Ventilation d. Diffusion
3. When an individual aspirates food particles, where would the nurse expect to hear decreased or absent breath sounds?
a. Left lung c. Trachea
b. Right lung d. Carina
4. Aspiration is most likely to occur in the right mainstem bronchus because it:
a. Extends vertically from the trachea.
b. Is narrower than the left mainstem bronchus.
c. Comes into contact with food and drink first.
d. Is located at the site where the bronchi bifurcate.
5. Air passage among alveoli is collateral and evenly distributed because of the function of which structures?
a. Type I alveolar cells c. Acinus pores
b. Pores of Kohn d. Alveolar pores
6. Where in the lung does gas exchange occur?
a. Trachea c. Alveolocapillary membrane
b. Segmental bronchi d. Main bronchus
7. Surfactant produced by type II alveolar cells facilitates alveolar distention and ventilation by which mechanism?
a. Decreasing thoracic compliance
b. Attracting water to the alveolar surface
c. Decreasing surface tension in the alveoli
d. Increasing surface tension in the alveoli
8. Which part of the brainstem provides basic automatic rhythm of respiration by sending efferent impulses to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles?
a. Dorsal respiratory group (DRG) c. Pneumotaxic center
b. Ventral respiratory group d. Apneustic center
9. Which structures secrete surfactant?
a. Type I alveolar cells c. Alveolar macrophages
b. Type II alveolar cells d. Stretch receptors
10. Which structure is not associated with any lymphatic vessels?
a. Trachea c. Acinus
b. Bronchi d. Terminal bronchioles
11. Which describes the pressure in the pleural space?
a. Atmospheric c. Above atmospheric
b. Below atmospheric d. Variable
12. The adequacy of a person’s alveolar ventilation is assessed best by monitoring which mechanism?
a. Ventilatory rate c. Respiratory effort
b. Ventilatory pattern d. Arterial blood gas
13. Which normal physiologic change occurs in the aging pulmonary system?
a. Decreased flow resistance c. Stiffening of the chest wall
b. Fewer alveoli d. Improved elastic recoil
14. How is most of the oxygen in the blood transported?
a. Dissolved in plasma c. In the form of carbon dioxide (CO2)
b. Bound to hemoglobin d. Bound to protein
15. Stretch receptors and peripheral chemoreceptors send afferent impulses regarding ventilation to which location in the brain?
a. Pneumotaxic center in the pons
b. Apneustic center in the pons
c. Dorsal respiratory group (DRG) in the medulla oblongata
d. Ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the medulla oblongata
16. Which substances cause airway epithelium to constrict?
a. Epinephrine and acetylcholine c. Bradykinin and thromboxane A
b. Histamine and prostaglandin d. Leukotrienes and prostacyclin
17. If a patient develops acidosis, the nurse would expect the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to react in which manner?
a. Shift to the right, causing more oxygen (O2) to be released to the cells
b. Shift to the left, allowing less O2 to be released to the cells
c. Show no change, allowing the O2 concentration to remain stable
d. Show dramatic fluctuation, allowing the O2 concentration to increase
18. How is most carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood transported?
a. Attached to oxygen c. Combined with albumin
b. In the form of bicarbonate d. Dissolved in the plasma
19. The sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles are referred to as which group?
a. Diaphragmatic muscles c. Intercostal muscles
b. Muscles of expiration d. Muscles of inspiration
20. An increase in surface tension caused by decreased surfactant production results in which alteration?
a. Decrease in alveolar macrophage production
b. Increase in lung compliance
c. Decrease in alveoli collapse
d. Increase in alveoli fluid collection
21. Decreased lung compliance means that the lungs are demonstrating which characteristic?
a. Difficult deflation c. Stiffness
b. Easy inflation d. Inability to diffuse oxygen
22. The lung is innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system via which nerve?
a. Vagus c. Brachial
b. Phrenic d. Pectoral
23. What event is characteristic of the function in Zone 1 of the lung?
a. Blood flow through the pulmonary capillary bed increases in regular increments.
b. Alveolar pressure is greater than venous pressure but not greater than arterial pressure.
c. The capillary bed collapses, and normal blood flow ceases.
d. Blood flows through Zone 1, but it is impeded to a certain extent by alveolar pressure.
24. Hypoventilation that results in the retention of carbon dioxide will stimulate which receptors in an attempt to maintain a normal homeostatic state?
a. Irritant receptors c. Peripheral chemoreceptors
b. Central chemoreceptors d. Stretch receptors
25. What is the most important cause of pulmonary artery constriction?
a. Low alveolar partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)
c. Respiratory alkalosis
26. Where does the tracheal bifurcation occur?
a. Larynx c. Carina
b. Bronchi d. Nasopharynx
27. How low must the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) drop before the peripheral chemoreceptors influence ventilation?
a. Below 100 mm Hg c. Below 70 mm Hg
b. Below 80 mm Hg d. Below 60 mm Hg
28. Which receptors are located in the smooth muscles of airways?
a. Central chemoreceptors c. Peripheral chemoreceptors
b. Stretch receptors d. J-receptors
29. Which receptors are located near the respiratory center?
a. Peripheral chemoreceptors c. Central chemoreceptors
b. Stretch receptors d. J-receptors
30. Which receptors are located in the aortic bodies, aortic arch, and carotid bodies?
a. Central chemoreceptors c. J-receptors
b. Stretch receptors d. Peripheral chemoreceptors
31. What is the purpose of the spirometry measurement?
a. To evaluate the cause of hypoxia
b. To measure the volume and flow rate during forced expiration
c. To measures the gas diffusion rate at the alveolocapillary membrane
d. To determine pH and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations
32. Which structures belong to the upper conduction airway? (Select all that apply.)
33. Regarding the respiratory process referred to as remodeling, which statements are true? (Select all that apply.)
a. Remodeling involves the vascular walls.
b. Scarring and thickening occurs during this respiratory process.
c. Remodeling results in a permanent change.
d. Pulmonary artery hypotension results.
e. Remodeling increases blood flow resistance.
34. What are the effects of aging on the pulmonary system?
a. Decreased chest wall compliance
b. Decreased lung recoil
c. Reduced ventilatory reserve
d. Decreased partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)
e. Reduced respiratory rate
Match the receptor with its function.
______ A. Irritant receptors
______ B. Stretch receptors
______ C. J-receptors
______ D. Peripheral chemoreceptors
______ E. Central chemoreceptors
35. Initiates rapid, shallow breathing
36. Monitors pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in arterial blood
37. Initiates cough reflex
38. Senses pH of cerebrospinal fluid
39. Hering-Breuer expiratory reflex