Quiz 35: Alterations of Pulmonary Function

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Quiz 35: Alterations of Pulmonary Function

Questions 56
Instructor Verified Answers Included
WarofGrades Guaranteed A+ Graded Tutorial

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Besides dyspnea, what is the most common characteristic associated with pulmonary disease?
a. Chest pain c. Cough
b. Digit clubbing d. Hemoptysis

2. Sitting up in a forward-leaning position generally relieves which breathing disorder?
a. Hyperpnea c. Apnea
b. Orthopnea d. Dyspnea on exertion

3. Kussmaul respirations as a respiratory pattern may be associated with which characteristic(s)?
a. Alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing
b. Pulmonary fibrosis
c. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
d. Slightly increased ventilatory rate, large tidal volumes, and no expiratory pause

4. Respirations that are characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing are a result of which respiratory mechanism?
a. Decreased blood flow to the medulla oblongata
b. Increased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), decreased pH, and decreased partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)
c. Stimulation of stretch or J-receptors
d. Fatigue of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm

5. With a total hemoglobin of 9 g/dl, how many grams per deciliter of hemoglobin must become desaturated for cyanosis to occur?
a. 3 c. 7
b. 5 d. 9

6. Which statement is true regarding ventilation?
a. Hypoventilation causes hypocapnia.
b. Hyperventilation causes hypercapnia.
c. Hyperventilation causes hypocapnia.
d. Hyperventilation results in an increased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2).

7. What term is used to describe the selective bulbous enlargement of the distal segment of a digit that is commonly associated with diseases that interfere with oxygenation of the blood?
a. Edema c. Angling
b. Clubbing d. Osteoarthropathy

8. Pulmonary edema and pulmonary fibrosis cause hypoxemia by which mechanism?
a. Creating alveolar dead space
b. Decreasing the oxygen in inspired gas
c. Creating a right-to-left shunt
d. Impairing alveolocapillary membrane diffusion

9. High altitudes may produce hypoxemia through which mechanism?
a. Shunting c. Decreased inspired oxygen
b. Hypoventilation d. Diffusion abnormalities

10. Which condition is capable of producing alveolar dead space?
a. Pulmonary edema c. Atelectasis
b. Pulmonary emboli d. Pneumonia

11. What is the most common cause of pulmonary edema?
a. Right-sided heart failure c. Mitral valve prolapse
b. Left-sided heart failure d. Aortic stenosis

12. Pulmonary edema usually begins to develop at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of how many millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)?
a. 10 c. 30
b. 20 d. 40

13. The collapse of lung tissue caused by the lack of collateral ventilation through the pores of Kohn is referred to as what type of atelectasis?
a. Compression c. Absorption
b. Perfusion d. Hypoventilation

14. In what form of bronchiectasis do both constrictions and dilations deform the bronchi?
a. Varicose c. Cylindric
b. Symmetric d. Saccular

15. Which pleural abnormality involves a site of pleural rupture that acts as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration?
a. Spontaneous pneumothorax c. Open pneumothorax
b. Tension pneumothorax d. Secondary pneumothorax

16. In which type of pleural effusion does the fluid become watery and diffuse out of the capillaries as a result of increased blood pressure or decreased capillary oncotic pressure?
a. Exudative c. Transudative
b. Purulent d. Large

17. Which condition involves an abnormally enlarged gas-exchange system and the destruction of the lung’s alveolar walls?
a. Transudative effusion c. Exudative effusion
b. Emphysema d. Abscess

18. Which term is used to identify a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma?
a. Consolidation c. Empyema
b. Cavitation d. Abscess

19. Which condition is not a cause of chest wall restriction?
a. Pneumothorax c. Gross obesity
b. Severe kyphoscoliosis d. Neuromuscular disease

20. What causes pneumoconiosis?
a. Pneumococci bacteria c. Exposure to asbestos
b. Inhalation of inorganic dust particles d. Inhalation of cigarette smoke

21. Which condition is a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury?
a. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
b. Pneumonia
c. Pulmonary emboli
d. Acute pulmonary edema

22. Which structure(s) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) release inflammatory mediators such as proteolytic enzymes, oxygen-free radicals, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and platelet-activating factor?
a. Complement cascade c. Macrophages
b. Mast cells d. Neutrophils

23. Pulmonary edema in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the result of an increase in:
a. Levels of serum sodium and water c. Capillary hydrostatic pressure
b. Capillary permeability d. Oncotic pressure

24. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid as a result of which mechanism?
a. Compression on the pores of Kohn, thus preventing collateral ventilation
b. Increased capillary permeability, which causes alveoli and respiratory bronchioles to fill with fluid
c. Inactivation of surfactant and the impairment of type II alveolar cells
d. Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure that forces fluid into the alveoli and respiratory bronchioles

25. Which type of pulmonary disease requires more force to expire a volume of air?
a. Restrictive c. Acute
b. Obstructive d. Communicable

26. Which immunoglobulin (Ig) may contribute to the pathophysiologic characteristics of asthma?
a. IgA c. IgG
b. IgE d. IgM

27. Which statement about the late asthmatic response is true?
a. Norepinephrine causes bronchial smooth muscle contraction and mucus secretion.
b. The release of toxic neuropeptides contributes to increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
c. The release of epinephrine causes bronchial smooth muscle contraction and increases capillary permeability.
d. Immunoglobulin G initiates the complement cascade and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased capillary permeability.

28. Clinical manifestations of inspiratory and expiratory wheezing, dyspnea, nonproductive cough, and tachypnea are indicative of which condition?
a. Chronic bronchitis c. Pneumonia
b. Emphysema d. Asthma

29. The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with which action?
a. Avoidance of the causative agent
b. Administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics
c. Administration of drugs that reduce bronchospasm
d. Administration of drugs that decrease airway inflammation

30. Which factor contributes to the production of mucus associated with chronic bronchitis?
a. Airway injury c. Increased Goblet cell size
b. Pulmonary infection d. Bronchospasms

31. Clinical manifestations of decreased exercise tolerance, wheezing, shortness of breath, and productive cough are indicative of which respiratory disorder?
a. Chronic bronchitis c. Pneumonia
b. Emphysema d. Asthma

32. Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of which respiratory disorder?
a. Chronic bronchitis c. Pneumonia
b. Emphysema d. Asthma

33. Which of the following is the most common route of lower respiratory tract infection?
a. Aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions
b. Inhalation of microorganisms
c. Microorganisms spread to the lung via blood
d. Poor mucous membrane protection

34. What is the initial step in the management of emphysema?
a. Inhaled anticholinergic agents c. Cessation of smoking
b. Beta agonists d. Surgical reduction of lung volume

35. In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating which action?
a. Macrophages that release tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-
b. Phagocytosis by neutrophils and eosinophils
c. Formation of immunoglobulin G to initiate the complement cascade
d. Apoptotic infected macrophages that activate cytotoxic T cells

36. The progression of chronic bronchitis is best halted by which intervention?
a. Regular use of bronchodilators
b. Smoking cessation
c. Postural chest drainage techniques
d. Identification of early signs of infection

37. Clinical manifestations of inspiratory crackles, increased tactile fremitus, egophony, and whispered pectoriloquy are indicative of which respiratory condition?
a. Chronic bronchitis c. Pneumonia
b. Emphysema d. Asthma

38. Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) results from which alteration?
a. Narrowed pulmonary capillaries c. Destruction of alveoli
b. Narrowed bronchi and bronchioles d. Ischemia of the myocardium

39. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is best described as a tumor that causes which alterations?
a. Abscesses and ectopic hormone production
b. Airway obstruction and atelectasis
c. Pleural effusion and shortness of breath
d. Chest wall pain and early metastasis

40. What medical term is used to identify the accumulation of air in the pleural space?
a. Flail chest c. Pleural effusion
b. Pneumothorax d. Exudate effusion

41. What medical term is used to identify the presence of pus in the pleural space?
a. Plural effusion c. Empyema
b. Asthma d. Pneumonia

42. Fluid in the pleural space characterizes which condition?
a. Pleural effusion c. Bronchiectasis
b. Atelectasis d. Ischemia

43. Which statement is true regarding hypoxemia?
a. Hypoxemia results in the increased oxygenation of arterial blood.
b. Respiratory alterations cause hypoxemia.
c. Hypoxemia results in the decreased oxygenation of tissue cells.
d. Various system changes cause hypoxemia.

44. Which medication classification is generally included in the treatment of silicosis?
a. Corticosteroids c. Bronchodilators
b. Antibiotics d. Expectorants

45. What medical term is used for a condition that results from pulmonary hypertension, creating chronic pressure overload in the right ventricle?
a. Hypoxemia c. Bronchiectasis
b. Hypoxia d. Cor pulmonale

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

46. What are the causes of dyspnea? (Select all that apply.)
a. Decreased pH, increased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and decreased partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)
b. Decreased blood flow to the medulla oblongata
c. Stimulation of stretch or J-receptors
d. Presence of anxiety
e. Presence of pain

47. Which inflammatory mediators are produced in asthma? (Select all that apply.)
a. Histamine
b. Bradykinin
c. Leukotrienes
d. Prostaglandins
e. Neutrophil proteases

48. Which clinical manifestation is associated with pulmonary hypertension? (Select all that apply.)
a. Systemic blood pressure greater than 130/90 mm Hg
b. Rhonchi bilaterally
c. Dyspnea on exertion
d. Peripheral edema
e. Jugular venous distention

49. Which statements are true regarding exudative effusion? (Select all that apply.)
a. Exudative effusion contains high concentrations of white blood cells.
b. Exudative effusion produces a very thick exudate.
c. Exudative effusion may occur in response to an inflammatory process.
d. The presence of a malignant cancer can trigger exudative effusion.
e. Exudative effusion is a result of increased capillary permeability.

50. Which characteristics are symptomatic of a flail chest? (Select all that apply.)
a. Involves the fracture of several consecutive ribs.
b. Involves multiple fractures to individual ribs.
c. Can involve the fracture of the sternum.
d. Is generally a result of the inflammatory process.
e. Is more common among the older adult population.

51. Which statements regarding Mycobacterium tuberculosis are true regarding the bacilli’s ability to go into dormancy? (Select all that apply.)
a. Neutrophils and macrophages all play a role in its dormancy.
b. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is capable of dormancy but for only a short period.
c. The immune system is the controlling factor regarding its length of dormancy.
d. The bacilli are sealed off in tubercles to allow for dormancy.
e. An attack by lymphocytes brings the bacilli out of their dormant state.

MATCHING

Match the descriptions with the corresponding terms.
______ A. Passage of fluid and solid particles into the lung
______ B. Inflammatory obstruction of small airways
______ C. Excessive amount of connective tissue in the lung
______ D. Lung tissue collapse
______ E. Abnormal dilation of the bronchi

52. Pulmonary fibrosis

53. Atelectasis

54. Bronchiectasis

55. Aspiration

56. Bronchiolitis

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