Quiz 43: Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System
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1. Which bone cells produce osteocalcin when stimulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and synthesize osteoid?
a. Osteoclasts c. Fibrocytes
b. Osteocytes d. Osteoblasts
2. What happens to the original bone during the second phase of bone remodeling?
a. The original bone is replaced. c. The original bone is resorbed.
b. It hardens. d. It is synthesized.
3. Which cells function to maintain bone matrix?
a. Osteoclasts c. Osteoblasts
b. Osteocytes d. Osteophytes
4. Which bone cells are large and multinucleated and contain lysosomes filled with hydrolytic enzymes?
a. Osteoblasts c. Osteocytes
b. Osteoclasts d. Fibrocytes
5. Which bone cell secretes hydrochloric acid to help dissolve bone minerals and collagenase, thus aiding in the digestion of collagen?
a. Osteocytes c. Osteoclasts
b. Osteoblasts d. Osteophytes
6. Which glucoprotein is believed to inhibit calcium phosphate precipitation and play a part in bone resorption by recruiting osteoclasts?
a. Osteocalcin c. Laminin
b. Osteonectin d. Osteopontin
7. Which glucoprotein is thought to transport essential elements such as hormones, ions, and other metabolites to and from the bone cells?
a. Osteocalcin c. Laminin
b. Osteonectin d. Bone albumin
8. How is the work function of a muscle usually calculated?
a. Muscle type c. Foot pounds
b. Calculating force distance d. Kilograms
9. What is the basic structural unit in compact bone?
a. Small channels called canaliculi c. Tiny spaces within the lacunae
b. Osteocytes within the lacunae d. Haversian system
10. Which part of an injured joint becomes insensitive to pain and regenerates slowly and minimally?
a. Synovium c. Bursa
b. Articular cartilage d. Tendon
11. The outer layer of the periosteum contains blood vessels and nerves that penetrate the inner structures of the bone by way of which structure?
a. Volkmann canals c. Sharpey canals
b. Canaliculi d. Trabeculae
12. What is the function of Sharpey fibers?
a. To anchor the outer layer of the periosteum to the inner layer
b. To contain blood vessels and nerves on the outer layer of the periosteum
c. To help attach tendons and ligaments to the periosteum
d. To attach muscles to the periosteum
13. After puberty, the epiphyseal plate calcifies, and the epiphysis merges with the __________.
a. Epiphyseal line c. Metaphysis
b. Epiphyseal plate d. Articular cartilage
14. The stage of healing in the bone that involves procallus formation entails which process?
a. Formation of a hematoma that allows the development of a fibrin network
b. Production of granulation tissue by fibroblasts, capillary buds, and osteoblasts
c. Development of a primitive bone matrix termed woven bone
d. Remodeling of the periosteal and endosteal bone surfaces
15. Which term describes a freely movable joint?
a. Synarthrosis c. Biarthrosis
b. Amphiarthrosis d. Diarthrosis
16. Which type of joint holds teeth in the maxilla or mandible?
a. Amphiarthrosis c. Synarthrosis
b. Diarthrosis d. Gomphosis
17. The hyaline cartilage joints between the ribs and sternum are examples of which type of joint?
a. Synchondrosis c. Gomphosis
b. Symphysis d. Syndesmosis
18. The joint that contains a synovial membrane that lines the inner joint capsule is an example of which type of joint?
a. Amphiarthrosis c. Synarthrosis
b. Diarthrosis d. Biarthrosis
19. What is the function of the synovial membrane’s type A cells within the intima?
a. To release mast cells, initiating the inflammatory process after joint injury
b. To ingest and remove bacteria and debris by phagocytosis in the joint cavity
c. To secrete hyaluronate, a binding agent that gives synovial fluid its viscous quality
d. To store fat cells and glycogen, providing adenosine triphosphate for joint activity
20. Which statement does not present accurate information concerning synovial fluid?
a. Synovial fluid contains protein polysaccharides to repair the synovial membrane after injury.
b. It lubricates the joint surfaces.
c. Synovial fluid nourishes the pad of the articular cartilage.
d. It contains leukocytes to phagocytize joint debris and microorganisms.
21. What anchors articular cartilage to the underlying bone?
a. Sharpey fibers c. Glycoproteins
b. Collagen fibers d. Elastin fibers
22. What controls the movement of synovial fluid through cartilage?
a. Cartiloregulins c. Proteoglycans
b. Hyaluronate d. Chondroitin
23. Which statement is false about muscles?
a. Muscle comprises 50% of an adult’s body weight and 40% of a child’s body weight.
b. Muscle is 75% water, 20% protein, and 5% organic and inorganic compounds.
c. Muscle contains 32% of all protein stores for energy and metabolism.
d. Muscles are encased in fascia.
24. Which characteristic is true of type II (white fast-motor) muscle fibers?
a. Slow contraction speed c. Profuse capillary supply
b. Fast conduction velocities d. Oxidative metabolism
25. As the innervation ratio of a particular organ increases, what other property also increases?
a. Control c. Coordination
b. Movement d. Endurance
26. Which statement describes a neuroregulin?
a. Chemical mediator that initiates signals from the anterior horn cell of the spinal card to the axon of motor nerve branches of groups of muscle fibers
b. Neurotransmitter that provides a means of reporting changes in length, tension, velocity, and tone in muscles
c. Proteoglycan secreted by neurons, which increases acetylcholine receptors
d. Mechanoreceptor that lies parallel to muscle fibers and responds to muscle stretching
27. Which four-step process correctly describes muscle contraction?
a. Coupling, contraction, relaxation, excitation
b. Contraction, relaxation, excitation, coupling
c. Relaxation, excitation, coupling, contraction
d. Excitation, coupling, contraction, relaxation
28. Which type of ion directly controls the contraction of muscles?
a. Sodium c. Calcium
b. Potassium d. Magnesium
29. In which type of contraction does the muscle maintain a constant tension as it moves?
a. Isotonic c. Hypertonic
b. Isometric d. Hypotonic
30. Which term is used to identify a functional muscle contraction in which the muscle contracts but the limb does not move?
a. Isotonic c. Eccentric
b. Isometric d. Concentric
31. Which statement is false about aging and the musculoskeletal system?
a. Haversian system erodes, the canals nearest the marrow cavity widened, and the endosteal cortex converts to spongy bone.
b. The remodeling cycle increases because of a decreased ability of the basic multicellular units to resorb and deposit bone.
c. Cartilaginous rigidity increases because of decreasing water content and decreasing concentrations of glycosaminoglycans.
d. Muscle ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis declines, although the regenerative function of muscle tissue is reportedly normal in older adults.
32. Which component is found in synovial fluid?
a. Protein polysaccharides c. Leukocytes
b. Water d. Chondrocytes
33. What term is used to identify an interlacing bundle of dense, white fibrous tissue that is richly supplied with nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels?
a. Procallus c. Hematoma
b. Joint capsule d. Elastin fibers
34. In adults, hematopoiesis takes place in which bone marrow cavities? (Select all that apply.)
d. Long bones
35. Which statements are true regarding osteocytes? (Select all that apply.)
a. An osteocyte is a transformed osteoblast.
b. An osteocyte obtains nutrients from capillaries in the canaliculi.
c. The functioning of an osteocyte is well understood.
d. Osteocytes signal osteoclasts and osteoblasts to form new bone.
e. An osteocyte helps maintain levels of calcium and phosphorus in blood plasma.
36. Which minerals are stored in bones? (Select all that apply.)
37. Which factors influence the rate of protein synthesis of skeletal muscles? (Select all that apply.)
c. Parathyroid hormone
d. Growth hormone
e. Amino acid substrates
Match the stages of wound healing of a bone with the description of each. Stages may be used more than once.
______ A. Callus replacement
______ B. Hematoma formation
______ C. Remodeling
______ D. Procallus formation
______ E. Callus formation
38. Fibroblasts, capillary buds, and osteoblasts move into the wound to produce granulation tissue.
39. Periosteal and endosteal surfaces of the bone are formed to the size and shape of the bone before an injury.
40. Osteoblasts form membranous or woven bone. Enzymes increase the phosphate content and permit the phosphate to join with calcium to be deposited.
41. Fibrin and platelets form a meshwork within the initial framework for healing.
42. Osteoblasts continue to restore callus with lamellar bone or trabecular bone.