Quiz 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases

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Quiz 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases

Questions 34
Instructor Verified Answers Included
WarofGrades Guaranteed A+ Graded Tutorial

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The data reporting that sickle cell disease affects approximately 1 in 600 American blacks is an example of which concept?
a. Incidence c. Ratio
b. Prevalence d. Risk

2. The ratio of the disease among the exposed population to the disease rate in an unexposed population is referred to as what type of risk?
a. Attributable c. Causal
b. Contingency d. Relative

3. Empirical risks for most multifactorial diseases are based on:
a. Chromosomal testing c. Liability thresholds
b. Direct observation d. Relative risks

4. What is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)?
a. Diet high in saturated fats
b. Increased production of cholesterol by the liver
c. Reduction in the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cell surfaces
d. Abnormal function of lipoprotein receptors circulating in the blood

5. Which risk factor for hypertension is influenced by genetic factors and lifestyle?
a. Sodium intake c. Psychosocial stress
b. Physical inactivity d. Obesity

6. What percentage of all cases of breast cancer are identified as an autosomal dominant form?
a. 5 c. 15
b. 10 d. 20

7. When a woman has one first-degree relative with breast cancer, her risk of developing breast cancer is how many times greater?
a. 2 c. 6
b. 3 d. 10

8. Adoption studies have shown that the offspring of an alcoholic parent when raised by nonalcoholic parents have what amount of an increased risk of developing alcoholism?
a. Twofold c. Fourfold
b. Threefold d. Tenfold

9. Studies have identified several genes that play a role in the prevention of obesity by affecting what?
a. Regulation of appetite c. Absorption of fat
b. Metabolizing of fat d. Altering the sense of satiety

10. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations increase the risk of which cancer in women?
a. Ovarian c. Uterine
b. Lung d. Pancreatic

11. Blood pressure variations are associated with:
a. ß1-adrenergic receptors to increase heart rate
b. The release of an antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that increases water reabsorption
c. The renin-angiotensin system’s effect on vasoconstriction
d. Serum bradykinin, causing vasodilation

12. The two most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes are:
a. Autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen associations
b. Autoantibodies and obesity
c. Obesity and positive family history
d. HLA associations and positive family history

13. A major characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus is that there is:
a. Partial insulin secretion c. Insulin resistance
b. An autoimmune cause factor d. Obesity as a common risk factor

14. Obesity acts as an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus by:
a. Reducing the amount of insulin the pancreas produces
b. Increasing the resistance to insulin by cells
c. Obstructing the outflow of insulin from the pancreas
d. Stimulating the liver to increase glucose production

15. Traits caused by the combined effects of multiple genes are referred to by which term?
a. Polygenic c. Modifiable
b. Multifocal d. Involuntary

16. Regarding type 2 diabetes, obesity is considered to be what type of risk?
a. Genetic c. Relative
b. Empirical d. Modifiable

17. Which disease form is identified on the basis of empirical risk observation?
a. Polygenic c. Monozygotic
b. Multifactorial d. Genetic

18. The number of persons living with a specific disease at a specific point in time is referred to by which term?
a. Relativity c. Prevalence
b. Survivability d. Incidence

19. Which type of cancer is said to aggregate among families?
a. Breast c. Skin
b. Lung d. Brain

20. Which dietary lifestyle choice has been associated with a decreased risk for developing colon cancer?
a. Increased consumption of dairy produces
b. Increased consumption of foods containing vitamin C
c. Decreased consumption of foods high in fat
d. Decreased consumption of artificial food coloring

21. It is currently believed that the risk for developing Alzheimer disease:
a. Is not directly related to genetic predisposition.
b. Is higher among men than it is among women.
c. Occurs less among Hispanics than in Asians.
d. Doubles among those with an affected first-degree relative.

22. The number of new cases of a disease reported during a specific period divided by the number of individuals in the population is defined as which characteristic of a disease?
a. Prevalence rate c. Relative risk
b. Incidence rate d. Frequency

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

23. Cancers that cluster strongly in families include: (Select all that apply.)
a. Breast
b. Colon
c. Ovarian
d. Lung
e. Brain

24. Which genes are responsible for an autosomal dominant form of breast cancer? (Select all that apply.)
a. LCAT
b. CHK1
c. CHK2
d. BRCA1
e. BRCA2

25. Lifestyle modifications that affect health-related risk factors include: (Select all that apply.)
a. Diet
b. Exercise
c. Education
d. Finances
e. Stress reduction

26. What factors are typically considered when assessing an individual’s risk for developing such common diseases as hypertension? (Select all that apply.)
a. Age
b. Diet
c. Exercise habits
d. Family history
e. Spiritual beliefs

27. Examples of multifactorial diseases associated with adults include: (Select all that apply.)
a. Breast cancer
b. Coronary heart disease
c. Emphysema
d. Diabetes mellitus
e. Schizophrenia

MATCHING

Match the terms with the corresponding descriptions.
______ A. Incidence rate effect of multiple genes
______ B. Gene-environment interaction
______ C. Prevalence rate at which some diseases occur
______ D. Obesity
______ E. Polygenic
______ F. Empirical risk
______ G. Relative risk

28. Traits caused by the combined effects of multiple genes

29. Number of persons living with the disease

30. Yields an increased risk for some diseases

31. Modifiable risk factor for many diseases

32. Number of new cases (persons) detected with the disease

33. Measure of the effect of a specific risk factor

34. Risks based on direct observation of data

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