Quiz 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases
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1. The data reporting that sickle cell disease affects approximately 1 in 600 American blacks is an example of which concept?
a. Incidence c. Ratio
b. Prevalence d. Risk
2. The ratio of the disease among the exposed population to the disease rate in an unexposed population is referred to as what type of risk?
a. Attributable c. Causal
b. Contingency d. Relative
3. Empirical risks for most multifactorial diseases are based on:
a. Chromosomal testing c. Liability thresholds
b. Direct observation d. Relative risks
4. What is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)?
a. Diet high in saturated fats
b. Increased production of cholesterol by the liver
c. Reduction in the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cell surfaces
d. Abnormal function of lipoprotein receptors circulating in the blood
5. Which risk factor for hypertension is influenced by genetic factors and lifestyle?
a. Sodium intake c. Psychosocial stress
b. Physical inactivity d. Obesity
6. What percentage of all cases of breast cancer are identified as an autosomal dominant form?
a. 5 c. 15
b. 10 d. 20
7. When a woman has one first-degree relative with breast cancer, her risk of developing breast cancer is how many times greater?
a. 2 c. 6
b. 3 d. 10
8. Adoption studies have shown that the offspring of an alcoholic parent when raised by nonalcoholic parents have what amount of an increased risk of developing alcoholism?
a. Twofold c. Fourfold
b. Threefold d. Tenfold
9. Studies have identified several genes that play a role in the prevention of obesity by affecting what?
a. Regulation of appetite c. Absorption of fat
b. Metabolizing of fat d. Altering the sense of satiety
10. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations increase the risk of which cancer in women?
a. Ovarian c. Uterine
b. Lung d. Pancreatic
11. Blood pressure variations are associated with:
a. ß1-adrenergic receptors to increase heart rate
b. The release of an antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that increases water reabsorption
c. The renin-angiotensin system’s effect on vasoconstriction
d. Serum bradykinin, causing vasodilation
12. The two most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes are:
a. Autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen associations
b. Autoantibodies and obesity
c. Obesity and positive family history
d. HLA associations and positive family history
13. A major characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus is that there is:
a. Partial insulin secretion c. Insulin resistance
b. An autoimmune cause factor d. Obesity as a common risk factor
14. Obesity acts as an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus by:
a. Reducing the amount of insulin the pancreas produces
b. Increasing the resistance to insulin by cells
c. Obstructing the outflow of insulin from the pancreas
d. Stimulating the liver to increase glucose production
15. Traits caused by the combined effects of multiple genes are referred to by which term?
a. Polygenic c. Modifiable
b. Multifocal d. Involuntary
16. Regarding type 2 diabetes, obesity is considered to be what type of risk?
a. Genetic c. Relative
b. Empirical d. Modifiable
17. Which disease form is identified on the basis of empirical risk observation?
a. Polygenic c. Monozygotic
b. Multifactorial d. Genetic
18. The number of persons living with a specific disease at a specific point in time is referred to by which term?
a. Relativity c. Prevalence
b. Survivability d. Incidence
19. Which type of cancer is said to aggregate among families?
a. Breast c. Skin
b. Lung d. Brain
20. Which dietary lifestyle choice has been associated with a decreased risk for developing colon cancer?
a. Increased consumption of dairy produces
b. Increased consumption of foods containing vitamin C
c. Decreased consumption of foods high in fat
d. Decreased consumption of artificial food coloring
21. It is currently believed that the risk for developing Alzheimer disease:
a. Is not directly related to genetic predisposition.
b. Is higher among men than it is among women.
c. Occurs less among Hispanics than in Asians.
d. Doubles among those with an affected first-degree relative.
22. The number of new cases of a disease reported during a specific period divided by the number of individuals in the population is defined as which characteristic of a disease?
a. Prevalence rate c. Relative risk
b. Incidence rate d. Frequency
23. Cancers that cluster strongly in families include: (Select all that apply.)
24. Which genes are responsible for an autosomal dominant form of breast cancer? (Select all that apply.)
25. Lifestyle modifications that affect health-related risk factors include: (Select all that apply.)
e. Stress reduction
26. What factors are typically considered when assessing an individual’s risk for developing such common diseases as hypertension? (Select all that apply.)
c. Exercise habits
d. Family history
e. Spiritual beliefs
27. Examples of multifactorial diseases associated with adults include: (Select all that apply.)
a. Breast cancer
b. Coronary heart disease
d. Diabetes mellitus
Match the terms with the corresponding descriptions.
______ A. Incidence rate effect of multiple genes
______ B. Gene-environment interaction
______ C. Prevalence rate at which some diseases occur
______ D. Obesity
______ E. Polygenic
______ F. Empirical risk
______ G. Relative risk
28. Traits caused by the combined effects of multiple genes
29. Number of persons living with the disease
30. Yields an increased risk for some diseases
31. Modifiable risk factor for many diseases
32. Number of new cases (persons) detected with the disease
33. Measure of the effect of a specific risk factor
34. Risks based on direct observation of data