Quiz 6: Epigenetics and Disease
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1. What genetic process is likely responsible for the occurrence of asthma in only one of a pair of identical twins?
a. Epigenetic modifications c. Transgenerational inheritance
b. Genomic imprinting d. Methylation
2. Prader-Willi syndrome causes a chromosomal defect that is:
a. Initiated by postnatal exposure to a virus
b. Inherited from the father
c. Related to maternal alcohol abuse
d. Transferred from mother to child
3. A malfunction in DNA methylation can lead to:
a. Hypothyroidism c. Cancer
b. Blindness d. Diabetes mellitus
4. Which statement is true regarding the embryonic development of stem cells?
a. They are already differentiated.
b. They are referred to as housekeeping genes.
c. They already demonstrate DNA sequencing.
d. They are said to be pluripotent.
5. When microRNA (miRNA) are methylated their messenger RNA (mRNA) targets are over-expressed, the resulting effect on existing cancer would be:
a. Cell death c. Remission
b. Metastasis d. Relapse
6. The difference between DNA sequence mutations and epigenetic modifications is:
a. DNA sequence mutations can be directly altered.
b. Leukemia is a result of only DNA sequence mutation.
c. Epigenetic modifications can be reversed.
d. No known drug therapies are available for epigenetic modifications.
7. Which term refers to the silenced gene of a gene pair?
a. Activated c. Mutated
b. Altered d. Imprinted
8. The shape of the face of a child diagnosed with Russell-Silver syndrome is likely to be:
a. Round c. Triangular
b. Square d. Elongated
9. Genes responsible for the maintenance of all cells are referred to as:
a. Universal c. Housekeeping
b. Managerial d. Executive
10. What is the belief regarding twins who adopt dramatically different lifestyles?
a. They may experience very different aging processes.
b. They will retain very similar methylation patterns.
c. They will experience identical phenotypes throughout their lifespans.
d. They may never demonstrate similar DNA sequences of their somatic cells.
11. Hypomethylation and the resulting effect on oncogenes result in a(an):
a. Decrease in the activity of the oncogene, thus suppressing cancer development
b. Deactivation of MLH1 to halt DNA repair
c. Increase in tumor progression from benign to malignant
d. Over-expression of microRNA, resulting in tumorigenesis
12. When a chromosome lacking 4 Mb is inherited from the mother, the child is at risk for developing which syndrome?
a. Prader-Willi c. Beckwith-Wiedemann
b. Angelman d. Russell-Silver
13. A child’s diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is supported by the presence of: (Select all that apply.)
a. An omphalocele
b. Neonatal hypoglycemia
c. Creased earlobes
d. Low birth weight
e. A large tongue
14. A diagnosis of Angelman syndrome in a child is supported by which assessment findings? (Select all that apply.)
a. Small feet and hands
b. Profound cognitive dysfunction
d. Ataxic gait
e. History of seizures