Quiz 95: Cellular Biology McCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th Edition

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Quiz 95: Cellular Biology
McCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th Edition

Questions 42
Instructor Verified Answers Included
WarofGrades Guaranteed A+ Graded Tutorial

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which statement best describes the cellular function of metabolic absorption?
a. Cells can produce proteins.
b. Cells can secrete digestive enzymes.
c. Cells can take in and use nutrients.
d. Cells can synthesize fats.

2. Where is most of a cell’s genetic information, including RNA and DNA, contained?
a. Mitochondria
b. Ribosome
c. Nucleolus
d. Lysosome

3. Which component of the cell produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms from specific substrates in an oxidative reaction?
a. Lysosomes
b. Peroxisomes
c. Ribosomes
d. Endosome

4. Which cell component is capable of cellular autodigestion when it is released during cell injury?
a. Ribosome
b. Golgi complex
c. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
d. Lysosomes

5. Which cAMP-mediated response is related to antidiuretic hormone?
a. Increased heart rate and force of contraction
b. Secretion of cortisol
c. Increased retention of water
d. Breakdown of fat

6. During which phase of the cell cycle is DNA synthesized?
a. G1
b. S
c. G2
d. M

7. What organic compound facilitates transportation across cell membranes by acting as receptors, transport channels for electrolytes, and enzymes to drive active pumps?
a. Lipids
b. Proteases
c. Proteins
d. Carbohydrates

8. Understanding the various steps of proteolytic cascades may be useful in designing drug therapy for which human diseases?
a. Cardiac and vascular disorders
b. Autoimmune and malignant disorders
c. Gastrointestinal and renal disorders
d. Endocrine and gastrointestinal disorders

9. Which structure prevents water-soluble molecules from entering cells across the plasma membrane?
a. Carbohydrate chains
b. Glycoprotein channels
c. Membrane channel proteins
d. Lipid bilayer

10. A student asks for an explanation of the absolute refractory period of the action potential. What response by the professor is best?
a. A stronger than normal impulse will evoke another response.
b. No stimulus is able to evoke another response at this time.
c. Multiple stimuli can produce more rapid action potentials.
d. The hyperpolarized state means a weaker stimulus produces a response.

11. Which form of cell communication is used to communicate within the cell itself and with other cells in direct physical contact?
a. Protein channel (gap junction)
b. Plasma membrane-bound signaling molecules
c. Hormone secretion such as neurotransmitters
d. Extracellular chemical messengers such as ligands

12. Which mode of chemical signaling uses blood to transport communication to cells some distance away?
a. Paracrine
b. Autocrine
c. Neurotransmitter
d. Hormonal

13. Which mode of chemical signaling uses local chemical mediators that are quickly taken up, destroyed, or immobilized?
a. Paracrine
b. Autocrine
c. Neurotransmitter
d. Hormone

14. Neurotransmitters affect the postsynaptic membrane by binding to which structure?
a. Lipids
b. Ribosomes
c. Amphipathic lipids
d. Receptors

15. How do cells receive communication from the extracellular fluid surrounding them?
a. Protein channel (gap junction)
b. Plasma membrane-bound signaling molecules (involving receptors)
c. Hormone secretion such as neurotransmitters
d. Chemical messengers such as ligands

16. Which molecule provides the second messenger necessary for extracellular communication to be activated?
a. Guanosine triphosphate (GTP)
b. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
c. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
d. Guanosine diphosphate (GDP)

17. Under anaerobic conditions, what process provides energy for the cell?
a. Oxidative phosphorylation
b. Glycolysis
c. Lactolysis
d. Passive transport

18. What is the mechanism by which the energy produced from carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids is transferred to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
a. Anaerobic glycolysis
b. Oxidative cellular metabolism
c. Oxidative phosphorylation
d. Tricarboxylic acid phosphorylation

19. Passive transport is best described with which statement?
a. Being driven by osmosis, hydrostatic pressure, and diffusion
b. Involving receptors that can bind with substances being transported
c. Being capable of transporting macromolecules
d. Requiring energy generated by the cell

20. Which is the best example of active transport?
a. Movement across a membrane due to differences in solute concentration
b. Movement requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy
c. Movement of two molecules simultaneously in one direction
d. Movement of two molecules simultaneously in opposite directions

21. Which method of transport uses transmembrane proteins with receptors with a high degree of specificity for the substance being transported?
a. Active
b. Mediated
c. Transmembranous
d. Passive

22. The movement of fluid across the arterial end of capillary membranes into the interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary is an example of which fluid movement process?
a. Hydrostatic pressure
b. Osmosis
c. Diffusion
d. Active transport

23. A student asks why osmolality is preferred over osmolarity as the measurement of osmotic activity in the clinical assessment of individuals. What response by the professor is most accurate?
a. Plasma contains sodium and chloride, which influence the volume of solution.
b. Volume affects perfusion more than the weight of solutes.
c. More of the weight of plasma is influenced by solutes rather than by water.
d. Osmotic activity depends on the concentration of solutes present in plasma.

24. A patient who has diarrhea receives a 3% saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium and chloride lost in the stool. What effect will this fluid replacement have on cells?
a. Become hydrated
b. Swell or burst
c. Shrink
d. Divide

25. The transport of glucose from the blood to the cell is accomplished by which process?
a. Hydrostatic pressure
b. Active diffusion
c. Passive osmosis
d. Mediated transport

26. What transports potassium and sodium across plasma membranes?
a. Passive electrolyte channels
b. Coupled channels
c. Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme
d. Diffusion

27. What occurs during exocytosis?
a. Macromolecules can be secreted across eukaryotic cell membranes.
b. All substances are secreted into the cellular matrix.
c. No repairs in the plasma membrane can take place.
d. Solute molecules flow freely into and out of the cell.

28. The cellular uptake of the nutrient cholesterol depends on which process?
a. Receptor-mediated exocytosis
b. Antiport system
c. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
d. Passive transport

29. What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential to initiate an action potential?
a. Potassium gates open, and potassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.
b. Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.
c. Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.
d. Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.

30. The action of platelet-derived growth factor is to stimulate the production of which cells?
a. Platelets
b. Epidermal cells
c. Connective tissue cells
d. Fibroblast cells

31. What role do cytokines play in cell reproduction?
a. Provide growth factor for tissue growth and development
b. Block progress of cell reproduction through the cell cycle
c. Restrain cell growth and development
d. Provide nutrients for cell growth and development

32. What is the process of cellular reproduction?
a. The process often takes months or years to complete.
b. Cellular reproduction typically has a short interphase.
c. Two diploid cells, called daughter cells, have been formed.
d. The process involves the interaction of male and female cells.

33. Which statement is true about eukaryotic cells?
a. They lack distinct nucleus.
b. They contain compartments called organelles.
c. They lack an encasing nuclear membrane.
d. They are smaller than the typical prokaryote cell.

34. Which statement is true about phagocytosis?
a. Phagocytosis is an example of exocytosis.
b. Phagocytosis is dependent on small vesicles.
c. Phagocytosis involves the ingestion of bacteria.
d. Phagocytosis focuses on solute molecules.

35. A muscle cell possesses which specialized function?
a. Movement
b. Conductivity
c. Secretion
d. Respiration

36. When a mucous gland cell creates a new substance from previously absorbed material, this process is known as which specialized cellular function?
a. Excretion
b. Metabolic absorption
c. Reproduction
d. Secretion

37. All cells are capable of what process?
a. Excretion
b. Movement
c. Conductivity
d. Continuous division

38. What is the best description of cell cycle arrest?
a. The cell cycle is stopped due to damaged DNA.
b. Programmed cell death is suppressed.
c. Macromolecule degradation is inhibited.
d. Production of growth factors is halted.

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. What are the major chemical components of the cell membranes? (Select all that apply.)
a. Lipids
b. Sodium ions
c. Carbohydrates
d. DNA
e. Proteins

2. Which statements are true concerning the process of mediated transport? (Select all that apply.)
a. Can be active or passive
b. Only moves one molecule at a time
c. Involves transport proteins
d. Expends tremendous energy
e. Occurs only with hormones

3. What is passive transport dependent on? (Select all that apply.)
a. Semipermeable barrier membrane
b. The process of osmosis
c. Diffusion as a driving force
d. A living host
e. Hydrostatic pressure

4. What is the primary function of proteins? (Select all that apply.)
a. Proteins are binding units.
b. Proteins are transport channels.
c. Proteins are ribonucleoproteins.
d. Proteins provide cell surface markers.
e. Proteins are chemical reaction catalysts.

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