Quiz 96: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents
McCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th Edition
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1. Which type of cell adaptation occurs when normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial lining have been replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells?
2. What does the loss of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during ischemia cause cells to do?
a. Shrink because of the influx of calcium (Ca)
b. Shrink because of the influx of potassium chloride (KCl)
c. Swell because of the influx of sodium chloride (NaCl)
d. Swell because of the influx of nitric oxide (NO)
3. The mammary glands enlarge during pregnancy primarily as a consequence of what hormonal process?
4. Free radicals play a major role in the initiation and progression of which diseases?
a. Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease
b. Renal diseases such as acute tubular necrosis and glomerulonephritis
c. Gastrointestinal diseases such as peptic ulcer disease and Crohn disease
d. Muscular disease such as muscular dystrophy and fibromyalgia
5. How do free radicals cause cell damage?
a. Stealing the cell’s oxygen to stabilize the electron, thus causing hypoxia
b. Stimulating the release of lysosomal enzymes that digest the cell membranes
c. Transferring one of its charged, stabilized atoms to the cell membrane, which causes lysis
d. Giving up an electron, which causes injury to the chemical bonds of the cell membrane
6. What is a consequence of plasma membrane damage to the mitochondria?
a. Enzymatic digestion halts DNA synthesis.
b. Influx of calcium ions halts ATP production.
c. Edema from an influx in sodium causes a reduction in ATP production.
d. Potassium shifts out of the mitochondria, which destroys the infrastructure.
7. What is a consequence of leakage of lysosomal enzymes during chemical injury?
a. Enzymatic digestion of the nucleus and nucleolus occurs, halting DNA synthesis.
b. Influx of potassium ions into the mitochondria occurs, halting the ATP production.
c. Edema of the Golgi body prevents the transport of proteins out of the cell.
d. Shift of calcium out of the plasma membrane occurs, destroying the cytoskeleton.
8. Lead causes damage within the cell by interfering with the action of what?
a. Sodium and chloride
9. A health professions student asks the professor to explain apoptosis. What response is most accurate?
a. Programmed cell death
b. Due to chemical injury
c. Unpredictable patterns of cell death
d. Results in benign malignancies
10. A healthcare professional is assessing a child whose parents report poor grades in school, trouble paying attention, and “naughty” behaviors that have become so frequent the child is always in trouble. For which health condition should the professional facilitate testing?
a. Hypoxic injury
b. Lead poisoning
c. Mercury exposure
d. Cadmium injection
11. A student asks why carbon monoxide causes tissue damage. What response by the professor is best?
a. Competes with carbon dioxide so that it cannot be excreted
b. Binds to hemoglobin so that it cannot carry oxygen
c. Destroys the chemical bonds of hemoglobin so it cannot carry oxygen
d. Removes iron from hemoglobin so it cannot carry oxygen
12. A healthcare professional is working with a person who drinks several 6-packs of beer a week. What testing does the professional encourage the person to get?
a. Hepatic function
b. Gastrointestinal function
c. Renal function
d. Central nervous system function
13. During cell injury caused by hypoxia, why does an increase in the osmotic pressure within the cell occur?
a. Plasma proteins enter the cell.
b. The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)-driven pump is stronger during hypoxia.
c. Sodium chloride enters the cell.
d. An influx of glucose occurs through the injured cell membranes.
14. Which statement is true regarding the difference between subdural hematoma and epidural hematoma?
a. No difference exists, and these terms may be correctly used interchangeably.
b. A subdural hematoma occurs above the dura, an epidural hematoma occurs under the dura.
c. A subdural hematoma is often the result of shaken baby syndrome, whereas an epidural hematoma rapidly forms as a result of a skull fracture.
d. A subdural hematoma usually forms from bleeding within the skull, an epidural hematoma occurs from trauma outside the skull.
15. A healthcare professional is working at the health tent during a marathon. A runner is brought to the tent complaining of nausea and weakness. What is the first thing the professional should do?
a. Call 911.
b. Have the person lie down.
c. Give the person salt tablets.
d. Ask about street drug use.
16. In hypoxic injury, why does sodium enter the cell and cause swelling?
a. The cell membrane permeability increases for sodium during periods of hypoxia.
b. ATP is insufficient to maintain the pump that keeps sodium out of the cell.
c. The lactic acid produced by the hypoxia binds with sodium in the cell.
d. Sodium cannot be transported to the cell membrane during hypoxia.
17. What is the most common site of lipid accumulation?
a. Coronary arteries
d. Subcutaneous tissue
18. What mechanisms occur in the liver cells as a result of lipid accumulation?
a. Accumulation of lipids that obstruct the common bile duct, preventing flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder
b. Increased synthesis of triglycerides from fatty acids and decreased synthesis of apoproteins
c. Increased binding of lipids with apoproteins to form lipoproteins
d. Increased conversion of fatty acids to phospholipids
19. Hemoprotein accumulations are a result of the excessive storage of what?
a. Iron, which is transferred from the cells to the bloodstream
b. Hemoglobin, which is transferred from the bloodstream to the cells
c. Albumin, which is transferred from the cells to the bloodstream
d. Amino acids, which are transferred from the cells to the bloodstream
20. A patient suffered multiple traumatic injuries and received many blood transfusions within a few days of the injuries. For which medical condition should the healthcare professional monitor the patient for?
a. High blood pressure
b. HIV infection
d. Kidney damage
21. What is the cause of free calcium in the cytosol that damages cell membranes by uncontrolled enzyme activation?
a. Activation of endonuclease interferes with the binding of calcium to protein.
b. Activation of phospholipases, to which calcium normally binds, degrades the proteins.
c. An influx of phosphate ions competes with calcium for binding to proteins.
d. Depletion of ATP normally pumps calcium from the cell.
22. What two types of hearing loss are associated with noise?
a. Acoustic trauma and noise-induced
b. High frequency and low frequency
c. High frequency and acoustic trauma
d. Noise-induced and low frequency
23. What type of necrosis results from ischemia of neurons and glial cells?
24. What type of necrosis is often associated with pulmonary tuberculosis?
25. What type of necrosis is associated with wet gangrene?
26. After ovulation, the uterine endometrial cells divide under the influence of estrogen. This process is an example of what hormonal process?
27. What is the abnormal proliferation of cells in response to excessive hormonal stimulation?
b. Pathologic dysplasia
d. Pathologic hyperplasia
28. Removal of part of the liver leads to the remaining liver cells undergoing which compensatory process?
29. What is the single most common cause of cellular injury?
a. Hypoxic injury
b. Chemical injury
c. Infectious injury
d. Genetic injury
30. In decompression sickness, emboli are formed by bubbles of what?
c. Carbon monoxide
31. Which is an effect of ionizing radiation exposure?
a. Respiratory distress
b. Sun intolerance
c. DNA aberrations
32. What is dysplasia?
a. Abnormal increase in the number of a specific cell type
b. True adaptive process at the cellular level
c. Modification in the shape of a specific cell type
d. Lack of oxygen at the cellular level
1. Which organs are affected by lead consumption? (Select all that apply.)
2. A healthcare professional is screening children for fetal alcohol syndrome. Which children would the professional assess as possibly suffering from this disorder? (Select all that apply.)
a. Frequent asthma attacks
b. Cognitive impairment
c. Short stature for age
d. Esophageal stricture
e. Facial anomalies
3. What organs are affected by the type of necrosis that results from either severe ischemia or chemical injury? (Select all that apply.)
4. Which statements are true about melanin? (Select all that apply.)
a. Rarely found in epithelial cells
b. Found in cells called keratinocytes, which are present in the retina
c. A factor in the prevention of certain types of cancer
d. Most influential in managing the effects of short-term sunlight exposure
e. Accumulates in specific cells found in the skin
5. What are examples of adaptive cellular responses? (Select all that apply.)
6. What are examples of blunt force injuries? (Select all that apply.)
a. Bruise to the upper arm, resulting from a fall
b. Simple tibia fracture sustained in a skiing accident
c. Cut on the finger while slicing vegetables for a salad
d. Spleen laceration caused by a punch during a physical fight
e. Small caliber gunshot wound to the foot while target shooting
7. Which statements are true regarding the effects of marijuana use? (Select all that apply.)
a. Beneficial effects include decreases in nausea and pain.
b. Heavy use can result in psychomotor impairments.
c. Possibly causes reproductive changes
d. Research does not support marijuana use as a factor in developing lung cancer.
e. Fetal development appears to be unharmed by marijuana use.