Quiz 99: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases
McCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th Edition
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1. The data reporting that sickle cell disease affects approximately 1 in 600 American blacks is an example of which concept?
2. The ratio of the disease among the exposed population to the disease rate in an unexposed population is referred to as what type of risk?
3. What are empirical risks for most multifactorial diseases based on?
a. Chromosomal testing
b. Direct observation
c. Liability thresholds
d. Relative risks
4. What is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)?
a. Diet high in saturated fats
b. Increased production of cholesterol by the liver
c. Reduction in the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cell surfaces
d. Abnormal function of lipoprotein receptors circulating in the blood
5. Which risk factor for hypertension is influenced by genetic factors and lifestyle?
a. Sodium intake
b. Physical inactivity
c. Psychosocial stress
6. A student asks, “What is the percentage of all cases of breast cancer that are identified as an autosomal dominant form?” What response by the professor is best?
a. <1 b. 5 to 10 c. 15 to 20 d. 20 to 30 7. When a woman has one first-degree relative with breast cancer, her risk of developing breast cancer is how many times greater? a. 2 b. 3 c. 6 d. 10 8. Adoption studies have shown that the offspring of an alcoholic parent have what amount of an increased risk of developing alcoholism when raised by a nonalcoholic parent? a. Twofold b. Threefold c. Fourfold d. Tenfold 9. Studies have identified several genes that play a role in the prevention of obesity by affecting what? a. Regulation of appetite b. Metabolizing of fat c. Absorption of fat d. Altering the sense of satiety 10. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations increase the risk of which cancer in women? a. Ovarian b. Lung c. Uterine d. Pancreatic 11. What are blood pressure variations associated with? a. 1-Adrenergic receptors to increase heart rate b. The release of an antidiuretic hormone (ADH) c. The renin-angiotensin system’s effect on vasoconstriction d. Serum bradykinin, causing vasodilation 12. What are the two most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes? a. Autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen associations b. Autoantibodies and obesity c. Obesity and positive family history d. HLA associations and positive family history 13. A parent wants to know how to prevent type 1 diabetes in the newborn. The healthcare professional explains that prevention is not possible, because which of these is a major characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus? a. Partial insulin secretion b. An autoimmune cause factor c. Insulin resistance d. Obesity as a common risk factor 14. A patient with several risk factors is concerned about developing type 2 diabetes. The healthcare professional advises the patient to lose weight, explaining that obesity is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus because it causes what? a. Reduced insulin production by the pancreas b. Increased resistance to insulin in the cells c. Obstructed outflow of insulin from the pancreas d. Stimulation of glucose production by the liver 15. Traits caused by the combined effects of multiple genes are referred to by which term? a. Polygenic b. Multifocal c. Modifiable d. Involuntary 16. Regarding type 2 diabetes, obesity is considered to be what type of risk? a. Genetic b. Empirical c. Relative d. Modifiable 17. Which disease form is associated with identified empirical risks? a. Polygenic b. Multifactorial c. Monozygotic d. Genetic 18. The number of persons living with a specific disease at a specific point in time is referred to by which term? a. Relativity b. Survivability c. Prevalence d. Incidence 19. Which type of cancer is said to aggregate among families? a. Breast b. Lung c. Skin d. Brain 20. Which dietary lifestyle choice has been associated with a decreased risk for developing colon cancer? a. Increased consumption of dairy products b. Increased consumption of foods containing vitamin C c. Decreased consumption of foods high in fat d. Decreased consumption of artificial food coloring 21. What is currently believed about the risk for developing Alzheimer disease? a. It is not directly related to genetic predisposition. b. It is higher among men than it is among women. c. It occurs less among Hispanics than in Asians. d. It doubles among those with an affected first-degree relative. 22. The number of new cases of a disease reported during a specific period divided by the number of individuals in the population is defined as which characteristic of a disease? a. Prevalence rate b. Incidence rate c. Relative risk d. Frequency MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Which are cancers that cluster strongly in families? (Select all that apply.) a. Breast b. Colon c. Ovarian d. Lung e. Brain 2. Which genes are responsible for an autosomal dominant form of breast cancer? (Select all that apply.) a. LCAT b. CHK1 c. CHK2 d. BRCA1 e. BRCA2 3. Which lifestyle modifications affect health-related risk factors? (Select all that apply.) a. Diet b. Exercise c. Education d. Finances e. Stress reduction 4. What factors are typically considered when assessing an individual’s risk for developing such common diseases as hypertension? (Select all that apply.) a. Age b. Diet c. Exercise habits d. Family history e. Spiritual beliefs 5. Which are examples of multifactorial diseases associated with adults? (Select all that apply.) a. Breast cancer b. Coronary heart disease c. Emphysema d. Diabetes mellitus e. Schizophrenia